4,061 research outputs found

    Introduction : Entretiens collectifs : Nouveaux usages ?

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    L’idĂ©e de consacrer un numĂ©ro de la Revue française de science politique Ă  l’usage des entre- tiens collectifs (EC) part du constat que cette technique de recueil des donnĂ©es, totalement marginale il y a quelques annĂ©es dans le champ de la science politique française, est de plus en plus souvent utilisĂ©e. En 2004, au moment de la publication du petit sur Les entretiens collectifs dans la collection « L’enquĂȘte et ses mĂ©thodes », les rĂ©fĂ©rences de science politique signalĂ©es Ă©taient rares. En 2009, une sorte de frĂ©missement Ă©tait perceptible puisque quelques thĂšses et des projets de recherche utilisant cette technique Ă©taient disponibles. Ce mouvement nous a semblĂ© justifier l’organisation d’une journĂ©e d’étude dans le cadre de l’Association française de science politique (AFSP). Nous nous Ă©tions donnĂ©s pour objectif de faire un Ă©tat des lieux des objets ou des problĂ©matiques Ă  travers lesquels la recherche fondamentale dans les sciences sociales du politique, mais Ă©galement la recherche appliquĂ©e, en incluant le secteur des Ă©tudes marketing, avaient recours aux EC. Ce numĂ©ro est le prolongement de cette manifestation mais il ne rassemble que des contributions consacrĂ©es aux usages scientifiques. Depuis 2009, les choses semblent encore avoir Ă©voluĂ©, puisqu’on trouve des indices supplĂ©mentaires d’une diffusion de la technique dans le milieu des politistes et au-delĂ . Ces recherches constituent, de par leur nombre mais aussi leur diversitĂ©, une masse critique permettant de tirer un premier bilan au moment oĂč la nĂ©cessitĂ© de dynamiser le dĂ©bat sur les mĂ©thodes en science politique est rĂ©guliĂšrement mise en avant. L’inclusion d’un volet d’EC dans un projet de recherche est aujourd’hui une pratique de moins en moins exceptionnelle, mĂȘme si, le plus souvent, ils font office de complĂ©ment idĂ©al dans la mise en place d’un dispositif « multimĂ©thodes ». Ils s’inscrivent Ă©gale- ment parfois au sein d’enquĂȘtes de type ethnographique, que leur recours soit programmĂ© – quand il s’agit, par exemple, d’étudier le systĂšme d’influence entre proches ou plus impromptu, la dimension collective de l’entretien Ă©tant alors le rĂ©sultat non prĂ©vu de la dynamique de terrain

    Les enquĂȘtĂ©s disent-ils toujours la mĂȘme chose ? Concordances et discordances entre les rĂ©ponses Ă  un questionnaire et les interventions dans un entretien collectif

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    Cet article confronte les rĂ©ponses Ă  un questionnaire et les interventions dans des entretiens collectifs portant sur les attitudes Ă  l’égard de l’intĂ©gration europĂ©enne rĂ©alisĂ©s en 2005-2006. Il compare Ă©galement les positions sur l’Europe avec celles obtenues sur deux autres thĂšmes, l’État providence et l’immigration. Il soulĂšve donc Ă  la fois la question de la variabilitĂ© des opinions et celle de l’apport spĂ©cifique des entretiens collectifs. Il montre une certaine congruence des deux techniques d’enquĂȘte mais souligne Ă©galement l’existence de subtils dĂ©calages. Ceux-ci ne sont pas imputables aux individus en tant que tels mais relĂšvent d’abord des thĂšmes et des contextes de discussion. Cette exploration fournit des premiers Ă©lĂ©ments de preuve confortant l’idĂ©e selon laquelle les entretiens collectifs sont particuliĂšrement utiles pour saisir les positions des moins dotĂ©s socialement et politiquement parmi les citoyens.This article compares responses to questionnaires and contributions to focus groups carried out in 2005-2006 as part of research on attitudes toward European integration. It also compares the stances taken on Europe with those taken on two other issues, the welfare state and immigration. It therefore addresses questions about both the variability of opinions and the specific contribution of focus groups. It demonstrates a certain congruence between the two techniques as well as the existence of subtle shifts. These shifts are not attributable to individuals as such but to topics and to the contexts of discussion. This exploration provides evidence that focus groups are particularly useful to understand how citizens – and among them those with fewer social and political resource – are taking a stand

    Relocalisation de sources anciennes, textuelles et matérielles du XXe siÚcle : les « aires culturelles » de la vigne en Bourgogne en question

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    International audienceThis communication shows, from the AndrĂ© Lagrange’s archives, the relocation of the tools of the vineyard before the arrival of phylloxera. AndrĂ© Lagrange is an associate ethnologist at the “MusĂ©e des Arts et Traditions Populaires de Paris” (Paris Museum of Arts and People Traditions). These archives are kept at the “Archives Municipales de Beaune” (Beaune Municipal Archives). First, we shall speak about methodology.The archives are from the XXth century but they are similar to the ancient sources that the historians of the Middle Age or of the modern era deal with, taking in account that the data are not complete and that the wine growers witnesses of the practical experiences or users of those tools have died. So incomplete are the data of the ethnologist who has built that documental research up.With that relocation, some information collected on the field are discussed :- the scale of representation of the distribution of the tools of the pre-phylloxera vineyard,- the spheres of cultural influence built from AndrĂ© Lagrange’s maps with their technical, social or naturalist interpretation,- the relevance of those spheres of influence as tools of cultural and historical reflection in ethnology, in archaeology and in linguistics.Cette communication prĂ©sente la relocalisation sous SIG des outils de la vigne prĂ©-phylloxĂ©rique Ă  partir du fonds d’archives d’AndrĂ© Lagrange, ethnologue associĂ© au feu musĂ©e des Arts et Traditions Populaires de Paris, et conservĂ©es aux Archives Municipales de Beaune. Il sera d’abord question de mĂ©thodologie. Bien que datĂ©es du XXe siĂšcle, ces sources sont en effet analogues aux sources anciennes dont traite l’historien du Moyen Âge ou de l’époque moderne, compte-tenu de leur incomplĂ©tude, de la disparition aussi bien des vignerons tĂ©moins des pratiques ou utilisateurs directs de ces outils que celle de l’ethnologue qui a constituĂ© ce fonds de recherche.Avec cette relocalisation des informations de terrain recueillies, sont discutĂ©es :- l’échelle de reprĂ©sentation de cette rĂ©partition les outils de la vigne prĂ©-phylloxĂ©rique ;- les « aires culturelles » dĂ©duites des cartes construites initialement par A. Lagrange avec leurs interprĂ©tations techniques, sociales ou naturalistes ;- la pertinence de ces aires comme outil de rĂ©flexions culturelles et historiques en ethnologie, en archĂ©ologie, et en linguistique

    Entretiens collectifs : Nouveaux usages ?

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    Auparavant marginale, la mĂ©thodologie qualitative des entretiens collectifs est dĂ©sormais d'un usage plus frĂ©quent en science politique. En lui consacrant un dossier, oĂč les auteurs rendent compte de leur expĂ©rience de recherches empiriques, la RFSP entend favoriser le dĂ©bat sur les mĂ©thodes en science politique et s’interroger sur les usages que font les politistes des dispositifs « multimĂ©thodes ». Une large partie des ouvrages socio-historiques traitĂ©s dans la chronique bibliographique de ce numĂ©ro contribue Ă©galement Ă  cette rĂ©flexio

    MPI+X: task-based parallelization and dynamic load balance of finite element assembly

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    The main computing tasks of a finite element code(FE) for solving partial differential equations (PDE's) are the algebraic system assembly and the iterative solver. This work focuses on the first task, in the context of a hybrid MPI+X paradigm. Although we will describe algorithms in the FE context, a similar strategy can be straightforwardly applied to other discretization methods, like the finite volume method. The matrix assembly consists of a loop over the elements of the MPI partition to compute element matrices and right-hand sides and their assemblies in the local system to each MPI partition. In a MPI+X hybrid parallelism context, X has consisted traditionally of loop parallelism using OpenMP. Several strategies have been proposed in the literature to implement this loop parallelism, like coloring or substructuring techniques to circumvent the race condition that appears when assembling the element system into the local system. The main drawback of the first technique is the decrease of the IPC due to bad spatial locality. The second technique avoids this issue but requires extensive changes in the implementation, which can be cumbersome when several element loops should be treated. We propose an alternative, based on the task parallelism of the element loop using some extensions to the OpenMP programming model. The taskification of the assembly solves both aforementioned problems. In addition, dynamic load balance will be applied using the DLB library, especially efficient in the presence of hybrid meshes, where the relative costs of the different elements is impossible to estimate a priori. This paper presents the proposed methodology, its implementation and its validation through the solution of large computational mechanics problems up to 16k cores

    The mediating roles of pre-competitive coping and affective states in the relationships between coach-athlete relationship, satisfaction and attainment of achievement goals

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    The study is aimed to explore the relationship between coach-athlete relationship, precompetitive coping and affective states, satisfaction and attainment of achievement goals. A sample of 567 French athletes (Mage = 22.10; SD = 5.66; 377 men and 190 women) involved in 75 training groups participated in the study and completed a series of self-report measures in a temporal design with three measure points. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that the coach-athlete dyad (level 2; between-person level of analysis or training groups) and task-oriented coping (level 1; within person level of analysis or individuals) significantly predicted goal attainment (level 1). Moreover, the results of the Sobel test revealed that task-oriented coping (level 1) marginally mediated the relationship between coach-athlete dyad (level 2) and sport satisfaction (level 1). Besides, the coach-athlete dyad (level 1) and Intensity of positive affect (PA) mediated the relationship between coach-athlete dyad and goal attainment. Finally, the coach-athlete dyad (level 1) and Intensity of PA mediated the relationship between coach-athlete dyad and satisfaction (level 1). In conclusion, the display of Coach-Athlete relationship strategies may enhance higher levels of precompetitive task-oriented coping, intensity of PA, goal attainment and satisfaction. Subsequently, coaches and practitioners should focus their training on enhancing coach-athlete relationship as a crucial part of training in order to perform in competitions

    State-dependent risk taking and the transmission of monetary policy shocks

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    Is risk taking an important channel by which monetary policy shocks affect economic activity? On the basis of a nonlinear structural VAR including a new measure of risk sensitivity by economic agents, we show that the role of the risk-taking channel depends on the state of the economy. While it is irrelevant during recession or normal times, it acts as an amplifier by boosting output during expansion. It means that, as long as monetary policy does not actively "lean against the wind", it may exacerbate boom-bust patterns

    Characterization of the aerosol produced by infrared femtosecond laser ablation of polyacrylamide gels for the sensitive inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection of selenoproteins

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    A 2D high repetition rate femtosecondlaserablation strategy (2-mm wide lane) previously developed for the detection of selenoproteins in gel electrophoresis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was found to increase signal sensitivity by a factor of 40 compared to conventional nanosecond ablation (0.12-mm wide lane) [G. Ballihaut, F. Claverie, C. PĂ©cheyran, S. Mounicou, R. Grimaud and R. Lobinski, Sensitive Detection of Selenoproteins in Gel Electrophoresis by High Repetition Rate FemtosecondLaserAblation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, Anal. Chem. 79 (2007) 6874–6880]. Such improvement couldn't be explained solely by the difference of amount of material ablated, and then, was attributed to the aerosol properties. In order to validate this hypothesis, the characterization of the aerosolproduced by nanosecond and high repetition rate femtosecondlaserablation of polyacrylamidegels was investigated. Our 2D high repetition rate femtosecondlaserablation strategy of 2-mm wide lane was found to produce aerosols of similar particle size distribution compared to nanosecond laserablation of 0.12-mm wide lane, with 38% mass of particles < 1 ”m. However, at high repetition rate, when the ablated surface was reduced, the particle size distribution was shifted toward thinner particle diameter (up to 77% for a 0.12-mm wide lane at 285 ”m depth). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy was employed to visualize the morphology of the aerosol. In the case of larger ablation, the fine particles ejected from the sample were found to form agglomerates due to higher ablation rate and then higher collision probability. Additionally, investigations of the plasma temperature changes during the ablation demonstrated that the introduction of such amount of polyacrylamidegel particles had very limited impact on the ICP source (ΔT~ 25 ± 5 K). This suggests that the cohesion forces between the thin particles composing these large aggregates were weak enough to have negligible impact on the ICPMS detection

    Gaël Villeneuve, Les débats télévisés en 36 questions réponses

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    Les dĂ©bats tĂ©lĂ©visĂ©s constituent un objet social Ă©tonnant. Symptomatiques de la mĂ©diatisation de l’espace public, points de focalisation des critiques de la politique, ils sont souvent perçus comme un condensĂ© des Ă©volutions du systĂšme dĂ©mocratique. « Genre » ou « programme » en perpĂ©tuel renouvellement et toujours menacĂ©, ils sont convoquĂ©s en tant qu’analyseur des tensions consubstantielles de la reprĂ©sentation Ă  l’ùre mĂ©diatique (Bernard Manin, Principes du gouvernement reprĂ©sentatif, Pari..

    Top quark mass measurement in the electron+jets decay channel using the Matrix Element Method

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    The work described in this thesis concerns the analysis of proton-proton collisions that occurred in the course of the year 2012 at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV. Data recorded by the Compact Muon Solenoid at CERN, were filtered in order to isolate collisions giving rise to a top anti-top quark pair. These quarks decay into an electron and four jets. For a recorded luminosity 19.8 fb-1, 8898 events were analyzed after a very tight selection. The analysis was performed with the Matrix Element Method, one of the most accurate methods for a given set of events. This selected data is examined for an event-by-event basis and maximum use of the event kinematics is made. The method is very flexible in the sense it can test any theoretical model, while taking into account all possible experimental effects through systematic uncertainties. This analysis led to a top quark mass measurement of 170.94 ± 2:22 GeV / c2
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