4,533 research outputs found

    Tissues cIMPly do not lie

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    The effect of normal and abnormal ageing on prospective memory showed increased cognitive conflict: a functional MRI study

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    INTRODUCTION: Prospective memory (PM) is memory for planned intention, which needs to be executed appropriately in the future. PM task is usually embedded in ongoing activities. The neural correlates of PM have not been elucidated. To date, no functional imaging study has been conducted to examine the relevant functional change of PM during the processes of ageing and ...published_or_final_versio

    AFLP analysis on genetic diversity and population structure of small yellow croaker Larimichthys polyactis

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    The population genetic structure and diversity of small yellow croaker Larimichthys polyactis in the Bohai Bay, Yellow Sea and East China Sea were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism(AFLP). Ninety-one individuals were collected from six locations representing three stocks of small yellow croaker. A total of 218 putative loci were detected by 3 primer combinations, 148 of which were polymorphic (67.89%). The proportion of polymorphic loci and Nei’s genetic diversity for six populations ranged from 55.34 - 60.09%, and from 0.1244 - 0.1378. AMOVA analysis and pairwise FST revealedsignificant genetic differentiation among the three groups based on the breeding migration routes and over-wintering grounds, supporting separate stocks in this species. The result shows the migratorybehavior might be an important factor which influences the genetic structure of this species. The UPGMA tree also revealed the significant geographic structure in this species. Pattern of isolation bydistance was observed in this species, indicating that significant genetic differentiation among localities of small yellow croaker might be due to the geographic distance

    Relevance of short-range connectivity to brain compensation and cognitive efficiency in healthy and pathological ageing: a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and tractography study on prospective memory

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    INTRODUCTION: Cognition and its efficiency are related to the activities of specific brain regions and their interactions. The brain function and structure are vulnerable to both healthy and pathological ageing, and these processes may underlie the impaired cognitive functions in daily life …published_or_final_versio

    Using Wavelet Entropy To Demonstrate How Mindfulness Practice Increases Coordination Between Irregular Cerebral And Cardiac Activities

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    In both the East and West, traditional teachings say that the mind and heart are somehow closely correlated, especially during spiritual practice. One difficulty in proving this objectively is that the natures of brain and heart activities are quite different. In this paper, we propose a methodology that uses wavelet entropy to measure the chaotic levels of both electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) data and show how this may be used to explore the potential coordination between the mind and heart under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to identify the brain regions in which the EEG wavelet entropy was the most affected by the experimental conditions. As an illustration, the EEG and ECG were recorded under two different conditions (normal rest and mindful breathing) at the beginning of an 8-week standard mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) training course (pretest) and after the course (posttest). Using the proposed method, the results consistently showed that the wavelet entropy of the brain EEG decreased during the MBSR mindful breathing state as compared to that during the closed-eye resting state. Similarly, a lower wavelet entropy of heartrate was found during MBSR mindful breathing. However, no difference in wavelet entropy during MBSR mindful breathing was found between the pretest and posttest. No correlation was observed between the entropy of brain waves and the entropy of heartrate during normal rest in all participants, whereas a significant correlation was observed during MBSR mindful breathing. Additionally, the most well-correlated brain regions were located in the central areas of the brain. This study provides a methodology for the establishment of evidence that mindfulness practice (i.e., mindful breathing) may increase the coordination between mind and heart activities

    The comparison of thermal properties of protective clothing using dry and sweating manikins

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    The thermal insulation of clothing is commonly determined by dry thermal manikins either made of plastic or metal. For the determination of evaporative resistance of clothing ensemble, there exist three types of manikin methods: pre-wetted underwear or “skin” covered on dry manikins, the manikin with regulated constant water supply to the “skin” surface and the sweating fabric manikin based on a water filled body covered with waterproof but vapour permeable fabrics. The purpose of this study was to compare thermal insulation and moisture evaporative resistance of a set of protective clothing measured using different type of manikins. The total thermal insulation of seven EU project ensembles (Subzero A and B, Permeable (PERM), Impermeable (IMP), Nomex coverall (with two types of underwear) and Cotton coverall) were measured using the manikin Tore in Sweden, the sweating fabric manikin Walter in Hong Kong, and the manikin Newton in the UK. The results showed that total thermal insulation is reproducible for the seven clothing ensembles measured on the manikins Walter and Tore. The coefficient of variance is less than 8%. Nomex coverall with cotton underwear has 8-16% higher total insulation than that with polypropylene underwear. The apparent evaporative resistance of the impermeable coverall with cotton underwear measured on Newton was 44.5% lower than the evaporative resistance measured on Walter. The effect of condensation and conduction at room temperature environment and measuring time allowing full accumulation of moisture in clothing ensembles might be two important factors affecting the evaporative resistance

    Declined frontal white matter integrity in Alzheimer’s disease: a diffusion tensor imaging study

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    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies on structural changes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been focused on grey matter atrophy. There is a resurgence of interests on white matter integrity in this prominently increasing patient population. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides key information on the microstructural changes beyond macroscopic anatomical imaging by in-vivo tracing molecular diffusion in the brain, and the measured fractional anisotrophy (FA) value may represent axonal integrity of neuronal networks. Data of DTI from AD patients are limited, and the literature is controversial regarding whether the AD process has a greater impact on anterior versus posterior cerebral white matter. METHODS: Eighteen patients with mild AD and 16 age-matched healthy adults were recruited into the study. Demographic features of the two groups were comparable. Data of DTI were collected using a Philips 3.0T MRI scanner. Scan parameters were as follows: B0=800 s/mm2, FOV=224*224*140 mm, resolution=1.75*1.75*2 mm, non-collinear 15 directions was acquired. 3D T1 anatomy was also collected. We processed DTI data with DTI toolbox, and anatomical T1 data with VBM5 toolbox in SPM. Voxel-by-voxel analysis was applied to compare the difference in FA value, and volume of white matter of the normalised brain between the elderly and AD groups. RESULTS: Voxel-based analysis showed no significant difference in white matter volume between the two groups, but FA value was reduced greatly in the left anterior cingulate (−10,37,−3), right anterior cingulate (12,0,28), and left medial frontal lobe (−18,32,−12). Minor reduction was found in other brain regions such as body of the corpus callosum, right midbrain (12,−12,−6), right posterior corpus callosum (8,−44,2), and bilateral, especially right temporal lobe (36,−8,−20), upon right hippocampus. Coordinates (x,y,z) were labelled according to Talairach atlas. CONCLUSION: DTI could be valid and more sensitive than traditional T1 anatomy in detecting microscopic white matter lesions. Our data showed a greater decrement in FA value over the anterior than posterior brain regions, and this decrement was not due to white matter atrophy. Our findings are in line with the retrogenesis hypothesis which predicts reversed demyelination during the process of AD, as the frontal lobe fibres are myelinated relatively late during brain development. These results also support previous findings of our behavioural study that frontal lobe abnormality might be the neural basis for cognitive deficit in AD patients.published_or_final_versionThe 15th Medical Research Conference; Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 16 January 2010. In Hong Kong Medical Journal, 2010, v. 16 suppl 1, p. 21, abstract no. 2

    Measured and calculated seismic velocities and densities for granulites from xenolith occurrences and adjacent exposed lower crustal sections: A comparative study from the North China craton

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    Granulites from the Neogene xenolith-bearing Hannuoba alkaline basalt and from the Manjinggou-Wayaokou exposed lower crustal section in the Archean Huai'an terrain, which occurs within and surrounds the Hannuoba basalt, provide a unique opportunity for a comparative study on petrophysical properties and composition of the lower crust represented by these two types of samples. P and S wave velocities and densities of 12 Hannuoba lower crustal xenoliths and one associated spinel lherzolite xenolith as well as nine granulites and granulite-facies metasedimentary rocks from the Archean Huai'an terrain were measured in laboratory at pressures up to 600 MPa and temperatures up to 600°C. Calculations of P and S wave velocities were also made for the same suite of samples based on modal mineralogy and single-crystal velocities whose variations with composition are considered by using microprobe analyses and velocities of end members. The measured and calculated Vp at room temperature and 600 MPa, where the microcrack effect is considered to be almost eliminated, agree within 4% for rocks from the Manjinggou-Wayaokou section and the adjacent Wutai-Jining upper crustal to upper lower crustal section. In contrast, the xenoliths show systematically lower measured Vp by up to 15% relative to calculated velocities, even if decompression-induced products of kelyphite and glass are taken into account. The lower measured velocities for xenoliths are attributed to grain boundary alteration and residual porosity. This implies that although granulite xenoliths provide direct information about lower crustal constitution and chemical composition, they are not faithful samples for studying in situ seismic properties of the lower crust in terms of measured velocities due to alterations during their entrainment to the surface, which changes their physical properties significantly. In this respect, granulites from high-grade terrains are better samples because they are not subjected to significant changes during their slow transport to the surface and because physical properties depend primarily on mineralogy in addition to pressure and temperature. On the other hand, calculated velocities for granulite xenoliths are consistent with velocities for granulites from terrains, suggesting that they can be also used to infer lower crust composition by correlating with results from seismic refraction studies. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.published_or_final_versio
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