71,981 research outputs found

    Environment identification based memory scheme for estimation of distribution algorithms in dynamic environments

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    Copyright @ Springer-Verlag 2010.In estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs), the joint probability distribution of high-performance solutions is presented by a probability model. This means that the priority search areas of the solution space are characterized by the probability model. From this point of view, an environment identification-based memory management scheme (EI-MMS) is proposed to adapt binary-coded EDAs to solve dynamic optimization problems (DOPs). Within this scheme, the probability models that characterize the search space of the changing environment are stored and retrieved to adapt EDAs according to environmental changes. A diversity loss correction scheme and a boundary correction scheme are combined to counteract the diversity loss during the static evolutionary process of each environment. Experimental results show the validity of the EI-MMS and indicate that the EI-MMS can be applied to any binary-coded EDAs. In comparison with three state-of-the-art algorithms, the univariate marginal distribution algorithm (UMDA) using the EI-MMS performs better when solving three decomposable DOPs. In order to understand the EI-MMS more deeply, the sensitivity analysis of parameters is also carried out in this paper.This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant 60774064, the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) of UK under Grant EP/E060722/01

    The anatomy of teleneurosurgery in China

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    With its huge population and vast territory, China faces a great challenge in providing modern advanced health care services to all parts of the country. The advances of information communication technologies (ICTs) and the advent of internet have revolutionised the means in the delivery of healthcare via telemedicine to remote and underserved populations, which to a certain extent has been very well exploited in China, especially where 70% peasants residing in the rural areas. This paper reviews the latest development in telemedicine infrastructure in China with the focus on the development of teleneurosurgery, drawing from the results gained from a 3-year networking project between Europe and China on telemedicine (TIME, 2005–2007) funded by European Commission under Asia ICT programme, with an aim to shape up envisages of future medical care in China. Comparison with its counterparts in Europe is also addressed