3 research outputs found

    Understanding the Responses, Mechanism and Development of Salinity Stress Tolerant Cultivars in Rice

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    Rice is the most important staple food crop of much of the world’s population. Production and consumption of rice is higher in Asia but adverse environmental conditions critically threaten the rice production. Soil salinity has been a key abiotic constraint affecting the crop production by reducing growth, development and yield of the plant. Rice is highly sensitive to salinity specifically at the early vegetative and late reproductive stages. Therefore, studying the responses of crop at the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular level is an effective strategy. Understanding the mechanisms behind the salinity such as osmotic stress and osmolytes, ion exclusion, inclusion and compartmentation, antioxidant response and hormonal regulation. Different screening strategies such as phenotypic and genotypic screening for rice under salinity and select the salt tolerant lines. Using the conventional and molecular breeding approaches is a prerequisite for its effective management and to develop salt tolerant cultivars in rice

    Selection and validation of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.) under varied abiotic stress conditions

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    Abstract Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) using a stable reference gene is widely used for gene expression research. Barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.) is an ancient crop in Asia and Africa that is widely cultivated for food and fodder. It thrives well under drought, salinity, cold, and heat environmental conditions, besides adapting to any soil type. To date, there are no gene expression studies performed to identify the potential candidate gene responsible for stress response in barnyard millet, due to lack of reference gene. Here, 10 candidate reference genes, Actin (ACT), α-tubulin (α-TUB), β-tubulin (β-TUB), RNA pol II (RP II), elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α), adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT), TATA-binding protein-like factor (TLF), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2 (UBC2), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2L5 (UBC5) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), were selected from mRNA sequences of E. crus-galli and E. colona var frumentacea. Five statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, ΔCt, and RefFinder) were applied to determine the expression stabilities of these genes in barnyard millet grown under four different abiotic stress (drought, salinity, cold and heat) exposed at different time points. The UBC5 and ɑ-TUB in drought, GAPDH in salinity, GAPDH and APRT in cold, and EF-1α and RP II in heat were the most stable reference genes, whereas ß-TUB was the least stable irrespective of stress conditions applied. Further Vn/Vn + 1 analysis revealed two reference genes were sufficient to normalize gene expression across all sample sets. The suitability of identified reference genes was validated with Cu-ZnSOD (SOD1) in the plants exposed to different abiotic stress conditions. The results revealed that the relative quantification of the SOD1 gene varied according to reference genes and the number of reference genes used, thus highlighting the importance of the choice of a reference gene in such experiments. This study provides a foundational framework for standardizing RT-qPCR analyses, enabling accurate gene expression profiling in barnyard millet

    Distinctive Physio-Biochemical Properties and Transcriptional Changes Unfold the Mungbean Cultivars Differing by Their Response to Drought Stress at Flowering Stage

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    Mungbean is a nutritionally and economically important pulse crop cultivated around Asia, mainly in India. The crop is sensitive to drought at various developmental stages of its growing period. However, there is limited or almost no research on a comparative evaluation of mung-bean plants at the flowering stage under drought conditions. Hence, the aim of this research was to impose the drought stress on two mungbean cultivars VRM (Gg) 1 and CO6 at the flowering stage and assess the physio-biochemical and transcriptional changes. After imposing the drought stress, we found that VRM (Gg) 1 exhibited a low reduction in physiological traits (Chlorophyll, relative water content, and plant dry mass) and high proline content than CO6. Additionally, VRM (Gg) 1 has a low level of H2O2 and MDA contents and higher antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT) activity than CO6 during drought stress. The transcriptional analysis of photosynthesis (PS II-PsbP, PS II-LHC, PS I-PsaG/PsaK, and PEPC 3), antioxidant (SOD 2, POD, CAT 2), and drought-responsive genes (HSP-90, DREB2C, NAC 3 and AREB 2) show that VRM (Gg) 1 had increased transcripts more than CO6 under drought stress. Taken together, VRM (Gg) 1 had a better photosynthetic performance which resulted in fewer reductions in chlorophyll, relative water content, and plant dry mass during drought stress. In addition, higher antioxidative enzyme activities led to lower H2O2 and MDA levels, limiting oxidative damage in VRM (Gg) 1. This was positively correlated with increased transcripts of photosynthesis and antioxidant-related genes in VRM (Gg) 1. Further, the increased transcripts of drought-responsive genes indicate that VRM (Gg) 1 has a better genetic basis against drought stress than CO6. These findings help to understand the mungbean response to drought stress and will aid in the development of genotypes with greater drought tolerance by utilizing natural genetic variants