197 research outputs found

    Prostatic calculi detected in peripheral zone of the gland during a transrectal ultrasound biopsy can be significant predictors of prostate cancer

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    Purpose: Prostatic calculi (PC) are usually associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia or chronic inflammation. However, in several studies prostatic inflammation and calcification have been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (CaP). We evaluated the prevalence of PC during transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and correlate the ultrasonographic patterns with histological findings. Methods: A prospective study of 664 patients undergoing TRUS and prostate biopsy was planned. A standardized reproducible technique was used with using a GE Logiq 7 machine equipped with a 5-9MHz multi-frequency convex probe "end-fire". We defined marked presence of PC as multiple hyperechoic foci with significant area (‚Č• 3 mm in the largest diameter). PC were classified according to zone distribution into the gland: transitional zone (TZ), central zone (CZ), and peripheral zone (PZ). Results: No significant difference was noted between the patients with PC and without PC, when comparing age, preoperative PSA level, prostate volume, and biopsy number, except for DRE findings. 168 patients (25.3%) had marked presence of PC on TRUS: 50.6% in TZ, 20.2% in CZ, and 29.2% in PZ. 31 patients (63.3%) with presence of PC in PZ had CaP on biopsy. The correlation observed between CaP and the presence of PC in PZ was statistically significant (p < 0.001). However, among patients in the CaP group there was no statistical association between PC and moderate or high Gleason grade. Conclusions: This study suggests that chronic prostatic inflammation and PC have a role in the biogenesis of cancer. CaP was more frequent in patients with PC in PZ of the gland, but was not associated with higher Gleason grade among these patients (p < 0.001)

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in painful peripheral neuropathy: a systematic review

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    Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) has shown a neuroprotective effect in patients with peripheral neuropathies of different etiologies. Preclinical studies demonstrated a central anti-nociceptive action, both in neuropathic and nociceptive pain models. The present review aims to provide the knowledge on the efficacy of ALC in patients with painful peripheral neuropathy, based on the evidence. Consistent with the PRISMA statement, authors searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for relevant papers, including those issued before April 2018. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion and data extraction: only trials including patients with a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy and involving at least 10 patients were considered for the purposes of this review. Fourteen clinical trials were revised, to provide the level of evidence for neuropathy. To assess the global efficacy of ALC in painful peripheral neuropathy, a meta-analysis of four randomized controlled trials was performed. Mean difference in pain reduction as measured on a 10-cm VAS, and 95% CIs were used for pooling continuous data from each trial. Four randomized controlled trials tested ALC in patients with neuropathy secondary to diabetes and to antiretroviral therapy for HIV. Compared to placebo, ALC produced a significant pain reduction equal to 20.2% (95% CI: 8.3%-32.1%, P<0.0001) with respect to baseline. Clinical trials also showed beneficial effects on nerve conduction parameters and nerve fiber regeneration, with a good safety profile. These data indicate that ALC provides an effective and safe treatment in patients with painful peripheral neuropathy. We recommend further studies to assess the optimal dose and duration of the therapeutic effect (also after treatment withdrawal)

    Ultrasound findings of ruptured Peyronie's plaque: Case report and review of the literature

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    We present here a rare case of rupture of tunica albuginea and corpus cavernosum, in the site of a Peyronie's plaque, which happened in a 61- year-old man during a vacuum cleaner masturbation. Ultrasound study showed an irregular hyperechoic defect at the cavernosal rupture site in correspondence of the Peyronie's plaque. The hematoma was evacuated, partially plaque excised, and the tear repaired. Ultrasonography is an ideal technique for evaluating patients with penile trauma and can be routinely used in an emergency. It is a non-invasive method that gives faster results than cavernosography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Pseudoaneurysm with arteriovenous fistula of the prostate after pelvic trauma: Ultrasound imaging

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    Pseudoaneurysm (PA) associated with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the internal pudendal artery branches are very uncommon. We report a case of post-traumatic PA with AVF connected to Santorini plexus. Diagnosis was made with trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) after recurrent hematuria. TRUS reported a 1.7 √ó 1.4 √ó 1.5 cm anechoic area, on anterior prostate apex close to Santorini plexus. The use of color Doppler in this area revealed high flow velocity that was indicative for AVF. The feeding artery was a distal branch of the left pudenda artery. After selective embolization was observed complete occlusion of the feeding branches and disappearance of PA with AVF. Prostate PA with concomitant symptomatic AVF detected with TRUS has not yet described in literature after pelvic trauma and represents complex diagnostic challenges. This case report suggests that the use of TURS and color Doppler can provide an important diagnostic and follow-up to address the clinical suspicion of occult vascular injuries using a noninvasive approach

    Rare presentation of a testicular angiofibroma treated with testis sparing surgery

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    Introduction: Testicular benign tumors are very rare (< 5%). Testicular Angiofibroma (AF) is one of those, however the gold standard of treatment and follow-up is still unclear. Case report: A 47 years-old man with only one functioning testis was referred to our clinic for a palpable right testicular mass and atrophic contralateral testis. Patient underwent testis-sparing surgery with inguinal approach and intraoperative frozen sections examination with diagnosis of AF. Final histology confirmed AF. Post-operative follow-up was uneventful. Clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up was negative after 8 months. Conclusion: We report a conservative surgery in a patient with AF of the solitary testis. AF is a benign para-testicular fibrous neoplasm that could be misinterpreted as malignant tumor and treated with orchiectomy. Testis-sparing surgery is recommended in this case with intraoperative pathological examination. The excision of the mass is enough but in front of a possible recurrence a long follow-up is advisable

    Adult primary paratesticular mesenchymal tumors with emphasis on a case presentation and discussion of spermatic cord leiomyosarcoma

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    Background: The aim of this report is related to adult primary paratesticular mesenchymal tumors with emphasis on a case presentation and discussion of the spermatic cord leiomyosarcoma. Primary paratesticular tumors are rare, only accounting for 7% to 10% of all intrascrotal tumors. In adults, more than 75% of these lesions arise from the spermatic cord, 20% being leiomyosarcoma. Tumor grade, stage, histologic type, and lymph node involvement are independently predictive of prognosis. Findings: The case report concerns a 81-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of painless lump in the right hemiscrotum. Scrotal examination demonstrated a 5.1-cm, firm-to-hard mass attached to the spermatic cord. Scrotal ultrasound scan revealed a heterogeneous mass separate from the testis. He was treated with an radical orchi-funicolectomy. Histologically the lesion is composed of spindled cells with often elongated, blunt-ended nuclei and variably eosinophilic cytoplasm. Areas with pleomorphic morphology are present. The level of mitotic activity is equal to 3/10 HPF in the areas with spindle cell morphology and to 12/10 HPF in the areas with pleomorphic morphology. The final diagnosis was that a leiomyosarcoma of the spermatic cord, with grade 1 and grade 2 areas, stage pT2b cN0 and cM0. The patient has been followed up for 3 months with CT scans and shows no signs of recurrence. Conclusions: Spermatic cord leiomyosarcoma, although rare, should be one of the first differential diagnoses for a firm-to-hard lump in the cord. Apart from radical orchi-funicolectomy, there has been added benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy to prevent any loco-regional lymph node recurrenc

    Bradykinesia and dystonia

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    Background: Bradykinesia has been reported in patients with dystonia. Despite this, the pathophysiological mechanisms of bradykinesia in dystonia remain largely unknown. Methods: We here performed a comprehensive literature search and reviewed clinical and experimental studies on bradykinesia in patients with dystonia. Results: Many studies have documented the presence of bradykinesia in patients with idiopathic and inherited isolated dystonia, regardless of the presence of parkinsonism. In addition, bradykinesia has been observed as a side effect in dystonic patients who have undergone deep brain stimulation, in those with functional dystonia as well as in those with combined dystonia, e.g., dystonia-parkinsonism. These clinical and experimental findings support the hypothesis that dysfunction in a brain network involving the basal ganglia, primary sensorimotor cortex, and cerebellum may play a key role in the pathophysiology of both bradykinesia and dystonia. Conclusion: Bradykinesia is frequently observed in dystonia. We may gain insights into the pathophysiological underpinnings of two distinct movement disorders by investigating this issue. Furthermore, a deeper understanding of bradykinesia in dystonia may have terminological implications in this field
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