3,264 research outputs found

    Investigating the intrinsic noise limit of Dayem bridge NanoSQUIDs

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    NanoSQUIDs made from Nb thin films have been produced with nanometre loop sizes down to 200 nm, using weak-link junctions with dimensions less than 60 nm. These composite (W/Nb) single layer thin film devices, patterned by FIB milling, show extremely good low-noise performance ∼170 nΦ0 at temperatures between 5 and 8.5 K and can operate in rather high magnetic fields (at least up to 1 T). The devices produced so far have a limited operating temperature range, typically only 1–2 K. We have the goal of achieving operation at 4.2 K, to be compatible with the best SQUID series array (SSA) preamplifier available. Using the SSA to readout the nanoSQUIDs provides us with a means of investigating the intrinsic noise of the former. In this paper we report improved white noise levels of these nanoSQUIDs, enabling potential detection of a single electronic spin flip in a 1-Hz bandwidth. At low frequencies the noise performance is already limited by SSA preamplifier noise

    Association of the Sweet-Liking Phenotype and Craving for Alcohol With the Response to Naltrexone Treatment in Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Identification of moderators of the response to naltrexone hydrochloride treatment for alcohol dependence could improve clinical care for patients with alcohol use disorders. To investigate the preliminary finding that the sweet-liking (SL) phenotype interacts with a high level of craving for alcohol and is associated with an improved response to naltrexone in alcohol dependence. This 12-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted from February 1, 2010, to April 30, 2012, in an academic outpatient medical center. Eighty actively drinking patients were randomized by the SL (n = 22) or the sweet-disliking (SDL) (n = 58) phenotype and by pretreatment high (n = 40) or low (n = 40) craving for alcohol, with high craving defined as greater than the median. Patients and staff were blinded to categorization. Patients were excluded for unstable medical or psychiatric illness, including dependence on drugs other than nicotine. Four patients (2 in the placebo arm and 2 in the naltrexone arm) stopped medication therapy because of adverse effects. Data were analyzed from January 15, 2013, to May 15, 2016, based on intention to treat. Oral naltrexone hydrochloride, 50 mg/d, or daily placebo with weekly to biweekly brief counseling. The a priori hypothesis tested SL/SDL phenotype, pretreatment craving, and their interaction as moderators of frequency of abstinent and heavy drinking days during treatment, assessed with the timeline follow-back method. Eighty patients were randomized (57 men [71%]; 23 women [29%]; mean [SD] age, 47.0 [8.6] years). A nonsignificant effect of naltrexone on heavy drinking was noted (4.8 fewer heavy drinking days; Cohen d = 0.45; 95% CI, -0.01 to 0.90; F1,67 = 3.52; P = .07). The SL phenotype moderated the effect of naltrexone on heavy drinking (6.1 fewer heavy drinking days; Cohen d = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.12-1.03; F1,67 = 5.65; P = .02) and abstinence (10.0 more abstinent days; Cohen d = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.11-1.02; F1,67 = 5.36; P = .02), and high craving moderated heavy drinking (7.1 fewer heavy drinking days; Cohen d = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.20-1.11; F1,67 = 7.37; P = .008). The combination of the SL phenotype and high craving was associated with a strong response to naltrexone, with 17.1 fewer heavy drinking days (Cohen d = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.58-1.54; F1,67 = 19.33; P < .001) and 28.8 more abstinent days (Cohen d = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.25-1.17; F1,67 = 8.73; P = .004) compared with placebo. The SL phenotype and a high craving for alcohol independently and particularly in combination are associated with a positive response to naltrexone. The SL/SDL phenotype and a high craving for alcohol merit further investigation as factors to identify patients with alcohol dependence who are responsive to naltrexone. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01296646

    Combinatorial thinking in chemistry and biology

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    Tunable coaxial cavity resonator for linear and nonlinear microwave characterization of superconducting wires

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    We discuss experimental results obtained using a tunable cylindrical coaxial cavity constituted by an outer Cu cylinder and an inner Pb-BSCCO wire. We have used this device for investigating the microwave response of the superconducting wire, both in the linear and nonlinear regimes. In particular, by tuning the different modes of the cavity to make them resonant at exactly harmonic frequencies, we have detected the power emitted by the superconducting inner wire at the second- and third-harmonic frequency of the driving field. The results obtained in the nonlinear regime, whether for the microwave surface impedance or the harmonic emission, are qualitatively accounted for considering intergrain fluxon dynamics. The use of this kind of device can be of strong interest to investigate and characterise wires of large dimensions to be used for implementing superconducting-based microwave devices.Comment: 14 pages, 6 embedded figures, accepted for publication in Supercond. Sci. Techno

    On waiting for something to happen

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    This paper seeks to examine two particular and peculiar practices in which the mediation of apparently direct encounters is made explicit and is systematically theorized: that of the psychoanalytic dialogue with its inward focus and private secluded setting, and that of theatre and live performance, with its public focus. Both these practices are concerned with ways in which “live encounters” impact on their participants, and hence with the conditions under which, and the processes whereby, the coming-together of human subjects results in recognizable personal or social change. Through the rudimentary analysis of two anecdotes, we aim to think these encounters together in a way that explores what each borrows from the other, the psychoanalytic in the theatrical, the theatrical in the psychoanalytic, figuring each practice as differently committed to what we call the “publication of liveness”. We argue that these “redundant” forms of human contact continue to provide respite from group acceptance of narcissistic failure in the post-democratic era through their offer of a practice of waiting

    Prototyping of petalets for the Phase-II Upgrade of the silicon strip tracking detector of the ATLAS Experiment

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    In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider, the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with the resultant increase in occupancy, bandwidth and radiation damage, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk consists of a silicon pixel and a strip detector and exploits the concept of modularity. Prototyping and testing of various strip detector components has been carried out. This paper presents the developments and results obtained with reduced-size structures equivalent to those foreseen to be used in the forward region of the silicon strip detector. Referred to as petalets, these structures are built around a composite sandwich with embedded cooling pipes and electrical tapes for routing the signals and power. Detector modules built using electronic flex boards and silicon strip sensors are glued on both the front and back side surfaces of the carbon structure. Details are given on the assembly, testing and evaluation of several petalets. Measurement results of both mechanical and electrical quantities are shown. Moreover, an outlook is given for improved prototyping plans for large structures.Comment: 22 pages for submission for Journal of Instrumentatio

    School-Based Prevention Of Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Study Of The Effectiveness And Specificity Of The Penn Resiliency Program

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    The authors investigated the effectiveness and specificity of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP; J. E. Gillham, L. H. Jaycox, K. J. Reivich, M. E. P. Seligman, & T. Silver, 1990), a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program. Children (N = 697) from 3 middle schools were randomly assigned to PRP, Control (CON), or the Penn Enhancement Program (PEP; K. J. Reivich, 1996; A. J. Shatté, 1997), an alternate intervention that controls for nonspecific intervention ingredients. Children\u27s depressive symptoms were assessed through 3 years of follow-up. There was no intervention effect on average levels of depressive symptoms in the full sample. Findings varied by school. In 2 schools, PRP significantly reduced depressive symptoms across the follow-up relative to both CON and PEP. In the 3rd school, PRP did not prevent depressive symptoms. The authors discuss the findings in relation to previous research on PRP and the dissemination of prevention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract

    Unipolar depression does not moderate responses to the Sweet Taste Test

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    The Sweet Taste Test (STT) measures hedonic responses to sweet tastes and has been linked to both alcoholism and to a family history of alcoholism. However, STT response profiles in unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD), a disorder characterized by anhedonia, have been minimally investigated

    Endogenous networks and international cooperation

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    The rise of social network analyses in the social sciences has allowed empirical work to better account for interdependencies among actors and among their actions. However, this work has been, to a large extent, descriptive: it has treated these actions as exogenous and immutable. In many cases these networks describe actions like alliance formation or trade phenomena that are the outcome variables for programs of social scientific research. In this paper, I attempt to account for both interdependencies and the endogenous nature of networks by incorporating formal theory; helping answer the question of how these networks arise by looking at the incentives of actors to form links with each other. I discuss the appropriate solution concept for a network formation game, and present an algorithm for finding the equilibrium of these networks computationally as well as ways to compare the theoretical networks to observed ones in order to evaluate the fit of the theory. I apply these methods to the study of international cooperation a subject where both the interdependencies and purposive nature of actors must be accounted for. The theoretical network is able to reproduce a number of important observed characteristics. Still, there are more factors that must be accounted for if we want to understand how the network of international cooperation is formed
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