209 research outputs found

    L'agente OO-Garlic in missione: contro la sindrome metabolica

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    Ciao, sono il Signor Garlic (ma per gli amici sono l’Agente 00-Garlic). I miei antenati erano molto tristi per via del loro odore cattivo che teneva tutti lontano. Per fortuna con il tempo gli scienziati hanno scoperto che nella puzza che circonda noi della stirpe Garlic si nascondono dei superpoteri! I miei poteri aumentano se vengo trasformato e la mia pelle diventa più scura, infatti inizio a produrre tanto H2S che è un’arma speciale contro i nemici più forti. Così chi è a conoscenza delle fortissime proprietà che possiedo, mi chiama in aiuto per sconfiggere nemici molto cattivi per la salute. Uno dei più grandi nemici per tutti noi si chiama sindrome metabolica... Continua a leggere..

    Multiple sclerosis patients treated with cladribine tablets: expert opinion on practical management after year 4

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    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive neurological disease involving neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and demyelination. Cladribine tablets are approved for immune reconstitution therapy in patients with highly active relapsing–remitting MS based on favorable efficacy and tolerability results from the CLARITY study that have been confirmed in long-term extension studies. The approved 4-year dosing regimen foresees a cumulative dose of 3.5 mg/kg administered in two cycles administered 1 year apart, followed by 2 years of observation. Evidence on managing patients beyond year 4 is scarce; therefore, a group of 10 neurologists has assessed the available evidence and formulated an expert opinion on management of the growing population of patients now completing the approved 4-year regimen. We propose five patient categories based on response to treatment during the first 4-year regimen, and corresponding management pathways that envision close monitoring with clinical visits, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or biomarkers. At the first sign of clinical or radiological disease activity, patients should receive a highly effective disease-modifying therapy, comprising either a full cladribine regimen as described in regulatory documents (cumulative dose 7.0 mg/kg) or a comparably effective treatment. Re-treatment decisions should be based on the intensity and timing of onset of disease activity, clinical and radiological assessments, as well as patient eligibility for treatment and treatment preference

    Dupilumab in the treatment of severe uncontrolled chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP): A multicentric observational Phase IV real-life study (DUPIREAL)

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    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is associated with significant morbidity and reduced health-related quality of life. Findings from clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of dupilumab in CRSwNP, although real-world evidence is still limited. Methods This Phase IV real-life, observational, multicenter study assessed the effectiveness and safety of dupilumab in patients with severe uncontrolled CRSwNP (n = 648) over the first year of treatment. We collected data at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of follow-up. We focused on nasal polyps score (NPS), symptoms, and olfactory function. We stratified outcomes by comorbidities, previous surgery, and adherence to intranasal corticosteroids, and examined the success rates based on current guidelines, as well as potential predictors of response at each timepoint. Results We observed a significant decrease in NPS from a median value of 6 (IQR 5–6) at baseline to 1.0 (IQR 0.0–2.0) at 12 months (p < .001), and a significant decrease in Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test-22 (SNOT-22) from a median score of 58 (IQR 49–70) at baseline to 11 (IQR 6–21; p < .001) at 12 months. Sniffin' Sticks scores showed a significant increase over 12 months (p < .001) compared to baseline. The results were unaffected by concomitant diseases, number of previous surgeries, and adherence to topical steroids, except for minor differences in rapidity of action. An excellent-moderate response was observed in 96.9% of patients at 12 months based on EPOS 2020 criteria. Conclusions Our findings from this large-scale real-life study support the effectiveness of dupilumab as an add-on therapy in patients with severe uncontrolled CRSwNP in reducing polyp size and improving the quality of life, severity of symptoms, nasal congestion, and smell

    Alemtuzumab-Related Lymphocyte Subset Dynamics and Disease Activity or Autoimmune Adverse Events: Real-World Evidence

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    Background and objectives: alemtuzumab is a monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody acting on B and T cells in highly active multiple sclerosis (MS). We analyzed changes in lymphocyte subsets after alemtuzumab administration in relation to disease activity and autoimmune adverse events. Methods: lymphocyte subset counts were assessed longitudinally using linear mixed models. Subset counts at baseline and during follow-up were correlated with relapse rate, adverse events, or magnetic resonance (MRI) activity. Results: we recruited 150 patients followed for a median of 2.7 years (IQR: 1.9-3.7). Total lymphocytes, CD4, CD8, and CD20 significantly decreased in all patients over 2 years (p < 0.001). Previous treatment with fingolimod increased the risk of disease activity and adverse events (p = 0.029). We found a higher probability of disease reactivation in males and in patients with over three active lesions at baseline. Higher EDSS scores at baseline and longer disease duration predicted the switch to other treatments after alemtuzumab. Discussion and conclusions: Our real-world study supports data from clinical trials in which lymphocyte subsets were not useful for predicting disease activity or autoimmune disease during treatment. The early use of an induction therapy such as alemtuzumab in patients with a lower EDSS score and short history of disease could mitigate the risk of treatment failure

    Hemophagocytic inflammatory syndrome in ADA-SCID: report of two cases and literature review

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    Hemophagocytic inflammatory syndrome (HIS) is a rare form of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis caused by an impaired equilibrium between natural killer and cytotoxic T-cell activity, evolving in hypercytokinemia and multiorgan failure. In the context of inborn errors of immunity, HIS occurrence has been reported in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) patients, including two cases of adenosine deaminase deficient-SCID (ADA-SCID). Here we describe two additional pediatric cases of ADA-SCID patients who developed HIS. In the first case, HIS was triggered by infectious complications while the patient was on enzyme replacement therapy; the patient was treated with high-dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins with HIS remission. However, the patient required HLA-identical sibling donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for a definitive cure of ADA-SCID, without HIS relapse up to 13 years after HSCT. The second patient presented HIS 2 years after hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (GT), secondarily to Varicella-Zoster vaccination and despite CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes’ reconstitution in line with other ADA SCID patients treated with GT. The child responded to trilinear immunosuppressive therapy (corticosteroids, Cyclosporine A, Anakinra). We observed the persistence of gene-corrected cells up to 5 years post-GT, without HIS relapse. These new cases of children with HIS, together with those reported in the literature, support the hypothesis that a major dysregulation in the immune system can occur in ADA-SCID patients. Our cases show that early identification of the disease is imperative and that a variable degree of immunosuppression could be an effective treatment while allogeneic HSCT is required only in cases of refractoriness. A deeper knowledge of immunologic patterns contributing to HIS pathogenesis in ADA-SCID patients is desirable, to identify new targeted treatments and ensure patients’ long-term recovery

    Empagliflozin in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Background The effects of empagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease who are at risk for disease progression are not well understood. The EMPA-KIDNEY trial was designed to assess the effects of treatment with empagliflozin in a broad range of such patients. Methods We enrolled patients with chronic kidney disease who had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of at least 20 but less than 45 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area, or who had an eGFR of at least 45 but less than 90 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (with albumin measured in milligrams and creatinine measured in grams) of at least 200. Patients were randomly assigned to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or matching placebo. The primary outcome was a composite of progression of kidney disease (defined as end-stage kidney disease, a sustained decrease in eGFR to < 10 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2), a sustained decrease in eGFR of & GE;40% from baseline, or death from renal causes) or death from cardiovascular causes. Results A total of 6609 patients underwent randomization. During a median of 2.0 years of follow-up, progression of kidney disease or death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 432 of 3304 patients (13.1%) in the empagliflozin group and in 558 of 3305 patients (16.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.82; P < 0.001). Results were consistent among patients with or without diabetes and across subgroups defined according to eGFR ranges. The rate of hospitalization from any cause was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.95; P=0.003), but there were no significant between-group differences with respect to the composite outcome of hospitalization for heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes (which occurred in 4.0% in the empagliflozin group and 4.6% in the placebo group) or death from any cause (in 4.5% and 5.1%, respectively). The rates of serious adverse events were similar in the two groups. Conclusions Among a wide range of patients with chronic kidney disease who were at risk for disease progression, empagliflozin therapy led to a lower risk of progression of kidney disease or death from cardiovascular causes than placebo
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