2,205 research outputs found

    ZEUS Results

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    Several results from the ZEUS Collaboration were presented at this Workshop. The highlights are presented in this summary, and include results from NLO QCD fits and determination of alphas, from forward jets and diffractive final states, from pentaquarks and searches and from heavy flavour production. Also the first results from the analysis of the HERA II e+p/e-p data are shown.Comment: 12 pages, Proceedings of the DIS05 Workshop, Madison, 200

    Experimental results on searches beyond the Standard Model

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    Recent results for direct searches for physics beyond the Standard Model are reviewed. The results include Tevatron II data up to 1.2 fb-1 and HERA results up to 350 pb-1. Searches for Supersymmetry, for compositeness and for large extra dimensions are presented. The excess of events with an isolated lepton and high missing transverse momentum at HERA is discussed.Comment: 10 pages, 15 figures, Plenary talk at the ICHEP06 conference, Moscow, July 26-August 2, 200

    gamete quality in a multistressor environment

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    Over the past few decades, accumulated evidence confirms that the global environment conditions are changing rapidly. Urban industrialization, agriculture and globalization have generated water, air and soil pollution, giving rise to an environment with a growing number of stress factors, which has a serious impact on the fitness, reproduction and survival of living organisms. The issue raises considerable concern on biodiversity conservation, which is now at risk: it is estimated that a number of species will be extinct in the near future. Sexual reproduction is the process that allows the formation of a new individual and is underpinned by gamete quality defined as the ability of spermatozoa and oocytes to interact during fertilization leading to the creation and development of a normal embryo.This review aimed to provide the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of a broad spectrum of environmental stressors on diverse parameters used to estimate and evaluate gamete quality in humans and in canonical animal models used for experimental research.Effects of metals, biocides, herbicides, nanoparticles, plastics, temperature rise, ocean acidification, air pollution and lifestyle on the physiological parameters that underlie gamete fertilization competence are described supporting the concept that environmental stressors represent a serious hazard to gamete quality with reproductive disorders and living organism failure. Although clear evidence is still limited, gamete capacity to maintain and/or recover physiological conditions is recently demonstrated providing further clues about the plasticity of organisms and their tolerance to the pressures of pollution that may facilitate the reproduction and the persistence of species within the scenario of global change.Changes in the global environment must be urgently placed at the forefront of public attention, with a massive effort invested in further studies aimed towards implementing current knowledge and identifying new methodologies and markers to predict impairment of gamete quality. Keywords: Gamete quality, Environmental stress, Fertilization, Xenobiotic, Climate change, Life styl

    First evidence of yawn contagion in a wild monkey species

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    Yawn contagion occurs when individuals yawn in response to the yawn of others (triggers). This is the first account of yawn contagion in wild geladas (Theropithecus gelada), a monkey species that shows yawn contagion in captivity and is organized in core units (one-male/bachelor groups) forming multilevel associations. In a population of geladas from the Kundi plateau (Ethiopia) we found that the yawning response was highest when geladas could perceive a triggering yawn, which confirms that yawn contagion is present in the wild. Yawn duration, mouth-opening degree and presence/absence of vocalisation (possibly modulating yawn detectability) did not affect the likelihood of contagion. Males and females, known to be both implicated in movement initiation within groups, were similarly powerful as yawn triggers. Instead, group membership and responder sex had a significant role in shaping the phenomenon. Yawn contagion was highest between individuals belonging to different core units and males were most likely to respond to others’ yawns. Because males have a non-negligible role in inter-group coordination, our results suggest that yawn contagion may have a communicative function that goes beyond the basic unit leve

    The Emerging Role of Microbial Biofilm in Lyme Neuroborreliosis

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    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common tick-borne disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in North America and Borrelia afzelii or Borrelia garinii in Europe and Asia, respectively. The infection affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, and the nervous system. Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is the most dangerous manifestation of Lyme disease, occurring in 10-15% of infected individuals. During the course of the infection, bacteria migrate through the host tissues altering the coagulation and fibrinolysis pathways and the immune response, reaching the central nervous system (CNS) within 2 weeks after the bite of an infected tick. The early treatment with oral antimicrobials is effective in the majority of patients with LNB. Nevertheless, persistent forms of LNB are relatively common, despite targeted antibiotic therapy. It has been observed that the antibiotic resistance and the reoccurrence of Lyme disease are associated with biofilm-like aggregates in B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii, and B. garinii, both in vitro and in vivo, allowing Borrelia spp. to resist to adverse environmental conditions. Indeed, the increased tolerance to antibiotics described in the persisting forms of Borrelia spp., is strongly reminiscent of biofilm growing bacteria, suggesting a possible role of biofilm aggregates in the development of the different manifestations of Lyme disease including LNB
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