17 research outputs found

    E-scooter accidents: A rising cause of kidney injury

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    Introduction: E-scooters recently gained mass expansion, leading to increased use-related injuries, most commonly head trauma, facial, and extremity fractures, while abdominal trauma with kidney involvement is less frequent. Here we present two cases of e-scooter-related high-grade blunt kidney trauma.Case reports: The first case was a 24-year-old male presenting with right abdominal pain after e-scooter autonomous right fall. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) was negative, while abdominal CT showed a 3 cm middle-renal laceration. Six-day CT showed minimal urinary extravasation. Neither anemization nor impaired kidney function was observed; the patient was discharged after 9 days. The second case was a 42-year-old male presenting with right flank pain and ipsilateral chest pain after autonomous right fall. Thoracic X-ray revealed multiple rib fractures, while abdominal echography showed a non-homogeneous right kidney with a 1.5 cm perirenal fluid layer. Abdominal CT revealed 2.5 x 4 x 3.5 cm full-thickness middle-upper renal parenchyma laceration and confirmed the perirenal hematoma, while demonstrating two hepatic lesions. A series of CT and ultrasounds confirmed the stability of the aforementioned lesions and reduction of the perirenal hematoma; laboratory findings didn't show anemization nor impaired renal function. The patient was discharged after 10 days.Discussion: Widespread usage of e-scooter is accompanied by an uptick in traumatic events. The chance of renal trauma increases when lateral fall occurs. In our cases patients were hemodynamically stable, the kidney injury severity was high-grade, and non-operative management was effective.Conclusion: E-scooter accidents could lead to high-grade renal injuries, amenable of non-operative management; these events are expected to raise

    Predictors of Lymph Node Invasion in Patients with Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Who Undergo Radical Prostatectomy and Extended Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection: The Role of Obesity

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    OBJECTIVE: In patients with intermediate- and high-risk localized prostate cancer (PCa), improving the detection of occult lymph node metastases could play a pivotal role for therapeutic counseling and planning. The recent literature shows that several clinical factors may be related to PCa aggressiveness. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential associations between clinical factors and the risk of multiple lymph node invasion (LNI) in patients with intermediate- and high-risk localized PCa (cT1/2, cN0, and ISUP grading group >2 and/or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >10 ng/mL) who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND).MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a period ranging from January 2014 to December 2018, 880 consecutive patients underwent RP with ePLND for PCa. Among these, 481 met the inclusion criteria and were selected. Data were prospectively collected within an institutional dataset and retrospectively analyzed. Age (years), body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), PSA (ng/mL), prostate volume (mL), and biopsy positive cores (BPC; %) were recorded for each case. BMI and BPC were considered continuous and categorical variables, respectively. The logistic regression models evaluated the association of clinical factors with the risk of nodal metastases.RESULTS: LNI was detected in 73/418 patients (15.2%) of whom 40/418 (8.3%) harbored multiple LNI (median 2, IQR: 3-4). On multivariate analysis, BMI was independently associated with the risk of multiple LNI in the pathological specimen when compared with patients without LNI (OR = 1.147; p = 0.018), as well as the percentage of biopsy positive cores (OR = 1.028; p < 0.0001) and European Association of Urology high-risk class (OR = 5.486; p < 0.0001). BMI was the only predictor of multiple LNI when compared with patients with 1 positive node (OR = 1.189, p = 0.027).CONCLUSIONS: In intermediate- and high-risk localized PCa, BMI was an independent predictor of the risk of multiple lymph node metastases. The inclusion of BMI within LNI risk calculators could be helpful, and a detailed counseling in obese patients should be required

    Endogenous testosterone density as ratio of endogenous testosterone levels on prostate volume predicts tumor upgrading in low-risk prostate cancer

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    Objectives To evaluate preoperative endogenous testosterone (ET) density (ETD), defined as the ratio of ET on prostate volume, and tumor upgrading risk in low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and methods From November 2014 to December 2019, 172 low-risk patients had ET (nmol/L) measured. ETD, prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) and the ratio of percentage of biopsy positive cores (BPC) to prostate volume (PV), defined as BPC density (BPCD), were evaluated. Associations with tumor upgrading in the surgical specimen were assessed by statistical methods. Results Overall, 121 patients (70.3%) had tumor upgrading, which was predicted by BPCD (odds ratio, OR = 4.640; 95% CI 1.903-11.316; p = 0.001; overall accuracy: 70.3%). On multivariate analysis, tumor upgrading and clinical density factors related to each other for BPCD being predicted by ETD (regression coefficient, b = 0.032; 95% CI 0.021-0.043; p < 0.0001), PSAD (b = 1.962; 95% CI 1.067-2.586; p < 0.0001) and tumor upgrading (b = 0.259; 95% CI 0.112-0.406; p = 0.001). According to the model, as BPCD increased, ETD and PSAD increased, but the increase was higher for upgraded cases who showed either higher tumor load but significantly lower mean levels of either ET or PSA. Conclusions As ETD increased, higher tumor loads were assessed; however, in upgraded patients, lower ET was also detected. ETD might stratify low-risk disease for tumor upgrading features

    Predictors of complications occurring after open and robot-assisted prostate cancer surgery: a retrospective evaluation of 1062 consecutive patients treated in a tertiary referral high volume center

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    To investigate factors associated with the risk of major complications after radical prostatectomy (RP) by the open (ORP) or robot-assisted (RARP) approach for prostate cancer (PCa) in a tertiary referral center. 1062 consecutive patients submitted to RP were prospectively collected. The following outcomes were addressed: (1) overall postoperative complications: subjects with Clavien-Dindo System (CD) one through five versus cases without any complication; (2) moderate to major postoperative complications: cases with CD < 2 vs. >= 2, and 3) major post-operative complications: subjects with CDS CD >= 3 vs. < 3. The association of pre-operative and intra-operative factors with the risk of postoperative complications was assessed by the logistic regression model. Overall, complications occurred in 310 out of 1062 subjects (29.2%). Major complications occurred in 58 cases (5.5%). On multivariate analysis, major complications were predicted by PCa surgery and intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL). ORP compared to RARP increased the risk of major CD complications from 2.8 to 19.3% (OR = 8283; p < 0.0001). Performing ePLND increased the risk of major complications from 2.4 to 7.4% (OR = 3090; p < 0.0001). Assessing intraoperative blood loss, the risk of major postoperative complications was increased by BL above the third quartile when compared to subjects with intraoperative blood loss up to the third quartile (10.2% vs. 4.6%; OR = 2239; 95%CI: 1233-4064). In the present cohort, radical prostatectomy showed major postoperative complications that were independently predicted by the open approach, extended lymph-node dissection, and excessive intraoperative blood loss

    Prognostic Impact and Clinical Implications of Unfavorable Upgrading in Low-Risk Prostate Cancer after Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Results of a Single Tertiary Referral Center

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    Objective: to evaluate predictors and the prognostic impact of favorable vs. unfavorable tumor upgrading among low-risk prostate cancer (LR PCa) patients treated with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods: From January 2013 to October 2020, LR PCa patients treated with RARP at our institution were identified. Unfavorable tumor upgrading was defined as the presence of an International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade group at final pathology > 2. Disease relapse was coded as biochemical recurrence and/or local recurrence and/or presence of distant metastases. Regression analyses tested the association between clinical and pathological features and the risk of unfavorable tumor upgrading and disease relapse. Results: Of the 237 total LR PCa patients, 60 (25.3%) harbored unfavorable tumor upgrading. Disease relapse occurred in 20 (8.4%) patients. Unfavorable upgrading represented an independent predictor of disease relapse, even after adjustment for other clinical and pathological variables. Conversely, favorable tumor upgrading did not show any statistically significant association with PCa relapse. Unfavorable tumor upgrading was associated with tumors being larger (OR: 1.03; p = 0.031), tumors extending beyond the gland (OR: 8.54, p < 0.001), age (OR: 1.07, p = 0.009), and PSA density (PSAD) ≥ 0.15 ng/mL/cc (OR: 1.07, p = 0.009). Conclusions: LR PCa patients with unfavorable upgrading at final pathology were more likely to be older, to have PSAD ≥ 0.15 ng/mL/cc, and to experience disease relapse. Unfavorable tumor upgrading is an issue to consider when counseling these patients to avoid delayed treatments, which may impair cancer-specific survival
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