61 research outputs found

    Normal preoperative endogenous testosterone levels predict prostate cancer progression in elderly patients after radical prostatectomy

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    Background: The impact of senior age on prostate cancer (PCa) oncological outcomes following radical prostatectomy (RP) is controversial, and further clinical factors could help stratifying risk categories in these patients. Objective: We tested the association between endogenous testosterone (ET) and risk of PCa progression in elderly patients treated with RP. Design: Data from PCa patients treated with RP at a single tertiary referral center, between November 2014 and December 2019 with available follow-up, were retrospectively evaluated. Methods: Preoperative ET (classified as normal if >350 ng/dl) was measured for each patient. Patients were divided according to a cut-off age of 70 years. Unfavorable pathology consisted of International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) grade group >2, seminal vesicle, and pelvic lymph node invasion. Cox regression models tested the association between clinical/pathological tumor features and risk of PCa progression in each age subgroup. Results: Of 651 included patients, 190 (29.2%) were elderly. Abnormal ET levels were detected in 195 (30.0%) cases. Compared with their younger counterparts, elderly patients were more likely to have pathological ISUP grade group >2 (49.0% versus 63.2%). Disease progression occurred in 108 (16.6%) cases with no statistically significant difference between age subgroups. Among the elderly, clinically progressing patients were more likely to have normal ET levels (77.4% versus 67.9%) and unfavorable tumor grades (90.3% versus 57.9%) than patients who did not progress. In multivariable Cox regression models, normal ET [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.27-8.55; p = 0.014] and pathological ISUP grade group >2 (HR = 5.62; 95% CI = 1.60-19.79; p = 0.007) were independent predictors of PCa progression. On clinical multivariable models, elderly patients were more likely to progress for normal ET levels (HR = 3.42; 95% CI = 1.34-8.70; p = 0.010), independently by belonging to high-risk category. Elderly patients with normal ET progressed more rapidly than those with abnormal ET. Conclusion: In elderly patients, normal preoperative ET independently predicted PCa progression. Elderly patients with normal ET progressed more rapidly than controls, suggesting that longer exposure time to high-grade tumors could adversely impact sequential cancer mutations, where normal ET is not anymore protective on disease progression

    Clinical implications of endogenous testosterone density on prostate cancer progression in patients with very favorable low and intermediate risk treated with radical prostatectomy

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    : We tested the association between endogenous testosterone density (ETD; the ratio between endogenous testosterone [ET] and prostate volume) and prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness in very favorable low- and intermediate-risk PCa patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). Only patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) within 10 ng ml-1, clinical stage T1c, and International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade group 1 or 2 were included. Preoperative ET levels up to 350 ng dl-1 were classified as abnormal. Tumor quantitation density factors were evaluated as the ratio between percentage of biopsy-positive cores and prostate volume (biopsy-positive cores density, BPCD) and the ratio between percentage of cancer invasion at final pathology and prostate weight (tumor load density, TLD). Disease upgrading was coded as ISUP grade group >2, and progression as recurrence (biochemical and/or local and/or distant). Risk associations were evaluated by multivariable Cox and logistic regression models. Of 320 patients, 151 (47.2%) had intermediate-risk PCa. ET (median: 402.3 ng dl-1) resulted abnormal in 111 (34.7%) cases (median ETD: 9.8 ng dl-1 ml-1). Upgrading and progression occurred in 109 (34.1%) and 32 (10.6%) cases, respectively. Progression was predicted by ISUP grade group 2 (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.290; P = 0.029) and upgrading (HR: 3.098; P = 0.003), which was associated with ISUP grade group 2 (odds ratio [OR]: 1.785; P = 0.017) and TLD above the median (OR: 2.261; P = 0.001). After adjustment for PSA density and body mass index (BMI), ETD above the median was positively associated with BPCD (OR: 3.404; P < 0.001) and TLD (OR: 5.238; P < 0.001). Notably, subjects with abnormal ET were more likely to have higher BPCD (OR: 5.566; P = 0.002), as well as TLD (OR: 14.998; P = 0.016). Independently by routinely evaluated factors, as ETD increased, BPCD and TLD increased, but increments were higher for abnormal ET levels. In very favorable cohorts, ETD may further stratify the risk of aggressive PCa

    Prognostic impact of palpable prostate tumors on disease progression after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: a single-center experience

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    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of palpable prostate tumors on digital rectal exam (DRE) on the disease progression of prostate cancer (PCa) treated with RARP surgery in a tertiary referral center. Materials and methods: Overall, 901 patients were evaluated in a period ranging from January 2013 to October 2020. In the surgical specimen, unfavorable pathology included ISUP grade group ≥3, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), and pelvic lymph node invasion (PLNI). Disease progression was defined as the occurrence of biochemical recurrence and/or local recurrence and/or distant metastases; its association with the primary endpoint was evaluated by Cox's proportional model. Results: Palpable prostate tumors were detected in 359 (39.8%) patients. The overall median (IQR) follow-up was 40 months (17-59). PCa progressed in 159 cases (17.6%). Nodularity or induration of the prostate at DRE was significantly associated with features of unfavorable pathology, increased risk of PCa progression (hazard ratio, HR = 1.902; 95% CI: 1.389-2.605; p < 0.0001) and, on multivariable analysis, was an independent prognostic factor for disease progression after adjusting for clinical and pathological variables. Conclusions: Prostate tumors presenting with an abnormal DRE finding have an independent adverse outcome for disease progression after PCa surgery. They provide also independent prognostic information, as they may be more aggressive than impalpable PCa

    American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA) Physical Status System and Risk of Major Clavien-Dindo Complications After Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy at Hospital Discharge: Analysis of 1143 Consecutive Prostate Cancer Patients

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    Objective: To test the hypothesis of associations of preoperative physical status system with major postoperative complications at hospital discharge in prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Materials and methods: In a period ranging from January 2013 to October 2020, 1143 patients were evaluated. The physical status was assessed by the American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA) system, which was computed trained anesthesiologists. The Clavien-Dindo system was used to classify postoperative complications, which were coded as major if greater than 1. Results: ASA physical status system included class I in 102 patients (8.9%), class II in 934 subjects (81.7%), and class III in 107 cases (9.4%). Clavien-Dindo complications were distributed as follows: grade 1: 141 cases (12.3%), grade 2: 108 patients (9.4%), grade 3a: 5 subjects (0.4%), grade 3b: 9 patients (0.8%), and grade 4a: 3 cases (0.3%). Overall, major complications were detected in 125 cases (10.9%). On multivariate analysis, major Clavien-Dindo complications were predicted by ASA score grade II (adjusted odds ratio, OR = 2.538; 95%CI 1.007-6.397; p = 0.048) and grade III (adjusted OR 3.468; 95%CI 1.215-9.896; p = 0.020) independently by pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) and/or blood lost. Conclusion: In RARP surgery, the risk of major postoperative Clavien-Dindo complications increased as the physical status system deteriorated independently by performing or not a PLND and/or large intraoperative blood lost. The ASA score system was an effective predictor of major Clavien-Dindo complications, which delayed LOHS in RARP surgery. Confirmatory studies are required. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13193-022-01577-9

    The Influence of Endogenous Testosterone Density on Unfavorable Disease and Tumor Load at Final Pathology in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: Results in 338 Patients Treated with Radical Prostatectomy and Extended Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection

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    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of endogenous testosterone density (ETD) on features of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) in intermediate-risk disease treated with radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymph node dissection. Materials and methods: Density measurements included the ratio of endogenous testosterone (ET), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and percentage of biopsy positive cores (BPC) on prostate volume (ETD, PSAD, and BPCD, respectively). The ratio of percentage of cancer invading the gland (tumor load, TL) on prostate weight (TLD) was also calculated. Unfavorable disease (UD) was defined as tumor upgrading (ISUP >3) and/or upstaging (pT >2) and/or lymph node invasion (LNI). Associations of ETD with features of aggressive PCa, including UD and TLD, were evaluated by logistic and linear regression models. Results: Evaluated cases were 338. Subjects with upgrading, upstaging, and LNI were 61/338 (18%), 73/338 (21%), and 25/338 (7.4%), respectively. TLD correlated with UD (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r = 0.204; p < 0.0001), PSAD (r = 0.342; p < 0.0001), BPCD (r = 0.364; p < 0.0001), and ETD (r = 0.214; p < 0.0001), which also correlated with BMI (r = -0.223; p < 0.0001), PSAD (r = 0.391; p < 0.0001), and BPCD (r = 0.407; p < 0.0001). TLD was the strongest independent predictor of UD (OR = 2.244; 95% CI = 1.146-4.395; p = 0.018). In the multivariate linear regression model predicting BPCD, ETD was an independent predictor (linear regression coefficient, b = 0.026; 95% CI: 0.016-0.036; p < 0.0001) together with PSAD (b = 1.599; 95% CI: 0.863-2.334; p < 0.0001) and TLD (b = 0.489; 95% CI: 0.274-0.706; p < 0.0001). According to models, TLD increased as ETD increased accordingly, but mean ET levels were significantly lower for patients with UD. Conclusions: As ETD measurements incremented, the risk of large tumors extending beyond the prostate increased accordingly, and patients with lower ET levels were more likely to occult UD. The influence of ETD on PCa biology should be addressed by prospective studies

    Severe systemic disease of the American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA) physical status system classification associated with delayed length of hospital stay in 1329 consecutive patients treated with radical prostatectomy for clinical prostate cancer

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    Background: The investigate the associations of the ASA physical status system with clinical, pathological, and perioperative features of prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) that eventually associated with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospective collected data from January 2013 to October 2020, including1329 patients. The ASA system was preoperatively assessed for each patient. Evaluated clinical factors were grouped as preoperative, perioperative, and pathological and were statistically associated with the ASA system. Continuous variables were represented as medians with relative interquartile ranges (IQR) and categorical factors were assessed as frequencies (percentages). Associations and risk of each ASA Class with population features were assessed by the multinomial logistic regression model (univariate and multivariate analysis). All tests were two-sided with P<0.05 considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: Postoperative complications at discharge occurred in 27.2%. The distribution of the ASA physical status system was as follows: ASA I 108 patients (8.1%), ASA II 1081 subjects (81.3%) and ASA III 140 cases (10.5%). Median length of hospital state (LOHS) was the same for ASA groups I and II (4 days), but longer (5 days) for the ASA group III. On MVA, the risk of delayed hospital stay was associated only with ASA III patients and was independent from age and BMI. Clavien-Dindo complications greater than 2 did not show any independent association with the ASA system. Conclusions: The ASA preoperative physical status system predicted the likelihood of longer LOHS

    Preoperative endogenous testosterone density predicts disease progression from localized impalpable prostate cancer presenting with PSA levels elevated up to 10 ng/mL

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    To investigate endogenous testosterone density (ETD) predicting disease progression from clinically localized impalpable prostate cancer (PCa) presenting with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels elevated up to 10 ng/mL and treated with radical prostatectomy

    Endogenous testosterone density is an independent predictor of pelvic lymph node invasion in high-risk prostate cancer: results in 201 consecutive patients treated with radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymph node dissection

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    Objective To evaluate the influence of endogenous testosterone density (ETD) on pelvic lymph node invasion (PLNI) in high risk (HR) prostate cancer (PCa) treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) and staged with extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND). Materials and methods ETD was evaluated as the ratio of endogenous testosterone (ET) on prostate volume (PV). HR-PCa was assessed according to the European Association of Urology (EAU) system. The association of ETD and other routinely clinical factors (BPC: percentage of biopsy positive cores; PSA: prostate specific antigen; ISUP: tumor grade system according to the International Society of Urologic Pathology; cT: tumor clinical stage) with the risk of PLNI was assessed by the logistic regression model. Results Overall, 201 out of 805 patients (24.9%) were classified HR and PLNI occurred in 42 subjects (20.9%). On multivariate analysis, PLNI was independently predicted by BPC (OR 1.020; 95% CI 1.006-1.035; p = 0.019), ISUP > 3 (OR 2.621; 95% CI 1.170-5.869; p = 0.019) and ETD (OR 0.932; 95% CI 0.870-0.999; p = 0.045). After categorizing continuous clinical predictors, the risk of PLNI was independently increased by ETD up to the median (OR 2.379; 95% CI 1.134-4.991; p = 0.022), BPC > 50% (OR 3.125; 95% CI 1.520-6.425; p = 0.002) as well as by ISUP > 3 (OR 2.219; 95% CI 1.031-4.776; p = 0.042). Conclusions As ETD measurements decreased, patients were more likely to have PLNI. In HR disease with PLNI, the influence of PCa on ETD should be addressed by higher level studies

    American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status system predicts the risk of postoperative Clavien-Dindo complications greater than one at 90 days after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: final results of a tertiary referral center

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    To test the hypothesis of an association between the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system and the risk of 90-days postoperative complications after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), graded using the Clavien-Dindo classification system (CDS). In a period ranging from January 2013 to October 2020, 1143 patients were evaluated. ASA classification was computed by trained anesthesiologists. Postoperative complications at 90 days after RARP were grouped as greater than one (CDS between 2 and 4a) versus up to one (CDS between 0 and 1). The risk association was computed using logistic regression models. According to ASA physical status classification system, patients were distributed as follows: 102 (8.9%) ASA 1, 934 (81.7%) ASA 2, and 107 (9.4%) ASA 3. Overall, 90-days postoperative complications occurred in 277 (24.2%) cases, of which 137 (12%) were graded as CDS 1 vs. 105 (9.2%) CDS 2 vs. 17 (1.5%) CDS 3a vs. 15 (1.3%) CDS 3b vs. 3 (0.3%) CDS 4a. ASA 2 and 3 patient categories were more likely to have 90-days postoperative complications CDS > 1 (12.5% and 16.8%, respectively) compared to ASA 1 patients (4.9%). The risk association was stronger for ASA 3 (odds ratio, [OR]: 4.085; 95%CI: 1.457-11.455; p = 0.007) than for ASA 2 (OR: 2.907; 95%CI: 1.106-7.285; p = 0.023) patient categories. After adjustment for clinical, pathological, and perioperative covariates, including pelvic lymph node dissection (performed vs. not performed), either ASA 2 or 3 categories remained independent predictors of 90-days postoperative complications CDS > 1. The risk of 90-days postoperative complications CDS > 1 after RARP increased as the ASA physical status deteriorated independently by performing or not an extended pelvic lymph node dissection. In the ASA 3 patients category, RARP should be performed at tertiary referral centers to safely manage the risk of postoperative complications

    Advanced age portends poorer prognosis after radical prostatectomy: a single center experience

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    Introduction and objective Although advanced age doesn't seem to impair oncological outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), elderly patients have increased rates of prostate cancer (PCa) related deaths due to a higher incidence of high-risk disease. The potential unfavorable impact of advanced age on oncological outcomes following RARP remains an unsettled issue. We aimed to evaluate the oncological outcome of PCa patients > 69 years old in a single tertiary center. Materials and methods 1143 patients with clinically localized PCa underwent RARP from January 2013 to October 2020. Analysis was performed on 901 patients with available follow-up. Patients >= 70 years old were considered elderly. Unfavorable pathology included ISUP grade group > 2, seminal vesicle, and pelvic lymph node invasion. Disease progression was defined as biochemical and/or local recurrence and/or distant metastases. Results 243 cases (27%) were classified as elderly patients (median age 72 years). Median (IQR) follow-up was 40.4 (38.7-42.2) months. Disease progression occurred in 159 cases (17.6%). Elderly patients were more likely to belong to EAU high-risk class, have unfavorable pathology, and experience disease progression after surgery (HR = 5.300; 95% CI 1.844-15.237; p = 0.002) compared to the younger patients. Conclusions Elderly patients eligible for RARP are more likely to belong to the EAU high-risk category and to have unfavorable pathology that are independent predictors of disease progression. Advanced age adversely impacts on oncological outcomes when evaluated inside these unfavorable categories. Accordingly, elderly patients belonging to the EAU high-risk should be counseled about the increased risk of disease progression after surgery
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