17,691 research outputs found

    The luminosity of GRB afterglows as distance estimator

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    We investigate the clustering of afterglow light curves observed at X-ray and optical wavelengths. We have constructed a sample of 61 bursts with known distance and X-ray afterglow. GRB sources can be divided in three classes, namely optical and X-ray bright afterglows, optical and X-ray dim one s, and optically bright -X-ray dim ones. We argue that this clustering is related to the fireball total energy, the external medium density, the fraction of fireball energy going in relativistic electrons and magnetic fields. We propose a method for the estimation of the GRB source redshift based on the observe d X-ray flux one day after the burst and optical properties. We tested this method on three recently detected SWIFT GRBs with known redshift, and found it i n good agreement with the reported distance from optical spectroscopy.Comment: 6 pages, proceeding of the PCHE session at the Journees de la SF2

    The structure and stability of molecular cloud cores in external radiation fields

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    We have considered the thermal equilibrium in pre-protostellar cores in the approximation where the dust temperature is independent of interactions with the gas and where the gas is heated both by collisions with dust grains and ionization by cosmic rays. We have then used these results to study the stability of cores in the limit where thermal pressure dominates over magnetic field and turbulence. We find that for cores with characteristics similar to those observed, the gas and dust temperatures are coupled in the core interior. As a consequence, the gas temperature like the dust temperature decreases towards the center of these objects. The density structure computed taking into account such deviations from isothermality are not greatly different from that expected for an isothermal Bonnor-Ebert sphere. It is impossible in the framework of these models to have a stable equilibrium core with mass above about 5 solar masses and column density compatible with observed values. We conclude from this that observed high mass cores are either supported by magnetic field or turbulence or are already in a state of collapse. Lower mass cores on the other hand have stable states and we conclude that the much studied object B68 may be in a state of stable equilibrium if the internal gas temperature is computed in self-consistent fashion. Finally we note that in molecular clouds such as Ophiuchus and Orion with high radiation fields and pressures, gas and dust temperatures are expected to be well coupled and hence one expects temperatures to be relatively high as compared to low pressure clouds like Taurus.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures. Astronomy & Astrophysics, in pres

    Modeling the magnetic field in the protostellar source NGC 1333 IRAS 4A

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    Magnetic fields are believed to play a crucial role in the process of star formation. We compare high-angular resolution observations of the submillimeter polarized emission of NGC 1333 IRAS 4A, tracing the magnetic field around a low-mass protostar, with models of the collapse of magnetized molecular cloud cores. Assuming a uniform dust alignment efficiency, we computed the Stokes parameters and synthetic polarization maps from the model density and magnetic field distribution by integrations along the line-of-sight and convolution with the interferometric response. The synthetic maps are in good agreement with the data. The best-fitting models were obtained for a protostellar mass of 0.8 solar masses, of age 9e4 yr, formed in a cloud with an initial mass-to-flux ratio ~2 times the critical value. The magnetic field morphology in NGC 1333 IRAS 4A is consistent with the standard theoretical scenario for the formation of solar-type stars, where well-ordered, large-scale, rather than turbulent, magnetic fields control the evolution and collapse of the molecular cloud cores from which stars form.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures. Accepted by Astronomy and Astrophysic

    A study of periodicities and recurrences in solar activity and cosmic ray modulation

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    The 154d periodicity was found in the cosmic ray intensity (RE) vs Flares, and some other peaks of coherency in the RC vs aa sub I, that when interpreted as aliased values, might correspond to recurring interplanetary magnetic field structures and solar wind streams. It cannot be excluded, however, that some of the correspondence with aa are of terrestrial origin. This study cannot be considered exhaustive due to the fact that other solar variables, such as polar hole size, are possibly correlated to cosmic ray intensities. However, the number of observations is small so that the interpretation of the results is very difficult

    Bounds for the Superfluid Fraction from Exact Quantum Monte Carlo Local Densities

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    For solid 4He and solid p-H2, using the flow-energy-minimizing one-body phase function and exact T=0 K Monte Carlo calculations of the local density, we have calculated the phase function, the velocity profile and upper bounds for the superfluid fraction f_s. At the melting pressure for solid 4He we find that f_s < 0.20-0.21, about ten times what is observed. This strongly indicates that the theory for the calculation of these upper bounds needs substantial improvements.Comment: to be published in Phys. Rev. B (Brief Reports

    A first principles simulation of rigid water

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    We present the results of Car-Parrinello (CP) simulations of water at ambient conditions and under pressure, using a rigid molecule approximation. Throughout our calculations, water molecules were maintained at a fixed intramolecular geometry corresponding to the average structure obtained in fully unconstrained simulations. This allows us to use larger time steps than those adopted in ordinary CP simulations of water, and thus to access longer time scales. In the absence of chemical reactions or dissociation effects, these calculations open the way to ab initio simulations of aqueous solutions that require timescales substantially longer than presently feasible (e.g. simulations of hydrophobic solvation). Our results show that structural properties and diffusion coefficients obtained with a rigid model are in better agreement with experiment than those determined with fully flexible simulations. Possible reasons responsible for this improved agreement are discussed

    On the Estimation of Euler Equations in the Presence of a Potential Regime Shift

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    The concept of a peso problem is formalized in terms of a linear Euler equation and a nonlinear marginal model describing the dynamics of the exogenous driving process. It is shown that, using a threshold autoregressive model as a marginal model, it is possible to produce time-varying peso premia. A Monte Carlo method and a method based on the numerical solution of integral equations are considered as tools for computing conditional future expectations in the marginal model. A Monte Carlo study illustrates the poor performance of the generalized method of moment (GMM) estimator in small and even relatively large samples. The poor performance is particularly acute in the presence of a peso problem but is also serious in the simple linear case.peso problem; Euler equations; GMM; threshold autoregressive models

    Dynamic structure factor for 3He in two-dimensions

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    Recent neutron scattering experiments on 3He films have observed a zero-sound mode, its dispersion relation and its merging with -and possibly emerging from- the particle-hole continuum. Here we address the study of the excitations in the system via quantum Monte Carlo methods: we suggest a practical scheme to calculate imaginary time correlation functions for moderate-size fermionic systems. Combined with an efficient method for analytic continuation, this scheme affords an extremely convincing description of the experimental findings.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

    Implementation of the Linear Method for the optimization of Jastrow-Feenberg and Backflow Correlations

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    We present a fully detailed and highly performing implementation of the Linear Method [J. Toulouse and C. J. Umrigar (2007)] to optimize Jastrow-Feenberg and Backflow Correlations in many-body wave-functions, which are widely used in condensed matter physics. We show that it is possible to implement such optimization scheme performing analytical derivatives of the wave-function with respect to the variational parameters achieving the best possible complexity O(N^3) in the number of particles N.Comment: submitted to the Comp. Phys. Com
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