146 research outputs found

    The GENIE Neutrino Monte Carlo Generator: Physics and User Manual

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    GENIE is a suite of products for the experimental neutrino physics community. This suite includes i) a modern software framework for implementing neutrino event generators, a state-of-the-art comprehensive physics model and tools to support neutrino interaction simulation for realistic experimental setups (the Generator product), ii) extensive archives of neutrino, charged-lepton and hadron scattering data and software to produce a comprehensive set of data/MC comparisons (the Comparisons product), and iii) a generator tuning framework and fitting applications (the Tuning product). This book provides the definite guide for the GENIE Generator: It presents the software architecture and a detailed description of its physics model and official tunes. In addition, it provides a rich set of data/MC comparisons that characterise the physics performance of GENIE. Detailed step-by-step instructions on how to install and configure the Generator, run its applications and analyze its outputs are also included

    Growth and dislocation studies of β-HMX

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    Background: The defect structure of organic materials is important as it plays a major role in their crystal growth properties. It also can play a subcritical role in “hot-spot” detonation processes of energetics and one such energetic is cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine, in the commonly used beta form (β-HMX). Results: The as-grown crystals grown by evaporation from acetone show prismatic, tabular and columnar habits, all with {011}, {110}, (010) and (101) faces. Etching on (010) surfaces revealed three different types of etch pits, two of which could be identified with either pure screw or pure edge dislocations, the third is shown to be an artifact of the twinning process that this material undergoes. Examination of the {011} and {110} surfaces show only one type of etch pit on each surface; however their natural asymmetry precludes the easy identification of their Burgers vector or dislocation type. Etching of cleaved {011} surfaces demonstrates that the etch pits can be associated with line dislocations. All dislocations appear randomly on the crystal surfaces and do not form alignments characteristic of mechanical deformation by dislocation slip. Conclusions: Crystals of β-HMX grown from acetone show good morphological agreement with that predicted by modelling, with three distinct crystal habits observed depending upon the supersaturation of the growth solution. Prismatic habit was favoured at low supersaturation, while tabular and columnar crystals were predominant at higher super saturations. The twin plane in β-HMX was identified as a (101) reflection plane. The low plasticity of β-HMX is shown by the lack of etch pit alignments corresponding to mechanically induced dislocation arrays. On untwinned {010} faces, two types of dislocations exist, pure edge dislocations with b = [010] and pure screw dislocations with b = [010]. On twinned (010) faces, a third dislocation type exists and it is proposed that these pits are associated with pure screw dislocations with b = [010]

    Proceedings From the Symposium on Kidney Disease in Older People: Royal Society of Medicine, London, January 19, 2017

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    People are living longer. On the whole, they have healthier lives and many of the problems previously seen at a younger age now appear in their later years. Kidneys, like other organs, age, and kidney disease in the aged is a prime example. In the United Kingdom, as in other developed countries, the prevalence of end stage kidney disease is highest in the 70- to 79-year-old age group. There are many older people who require renal replacement and are now considered for dialysis. While older patients with end-stage renal disease invariably aspire for a better quality of life, this needs a specialized approach and management. In January 2017, the Royal Society of Medicine held a seminar in London on “Kidney Disease in Older People” with presentations from a multidisciplinary body of experts speaking on various aspects of kidney problems in this age group and its management. The objectives were to increase awareness and improve the understanding of nephrology in the context of geriatric medicine but also geriatrics in its interface with nephrology, especially in the area of chronic kidney disease

    Mechanical properties of β-HMX

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    Background: For a full understanding of the mechanical properties of a material, it is essential to understand the defect structures and associated properties and microhardness indentation is a technique that can aid this understanding. Results: The Vickers hardness on (010), {011} and {110} faces lay in the range of 304-363 MPa. The Knoop Hardnesses on the same faces lay in the range 314-482 MPa. From etching of three indented surfaces, the preferred slip planes have been identified as (001) and (101). For a dislocation glide, the most likely configuration for dislocation movement on the (001) planes is (001) [100] (|b| = 0.65 nm) and for the (101) plane as (101) 101~(|b| = 1.084 nm) although (101) [010] (|b| = 1.105 nm) is possible. Tensile testing showed that at a stress value of 2.3 MPa primary twinning occurred and grew with increasing stress. When the stress was relaxed, the twins decreased in size, but did not disappear. The twinning shear strain was calculated to be 0.353 for the (101) twin plane. Conclusions: HMX is considered to be brittle, compared to other secondary explosives. Comparing HMX with a range of organic solids, the values for hardness numbers are similar to those of other brittle systems. Under the conditions developed beneath a pyramidal indenter, dislocation slip plays a major part in accommodating the local deformation stresses. © 2015 Gallagher et al.; licensee Springer

    A programme to spread eGFR graph surveillance for the early identification, support and treatment of people with progressive chronic kidney disease (ASSIST-CKD): protocol for the stepped wedge implementation and evaluation of an intervention to reduce late presentation for renal replacement therapy

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    Background Patients who start renal replacement therapy (RRT) for End-Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) without having had timely access to specialist renal services have poor outcomes. At one NHS Trust in England, a community-wide CKD management system has led to a decline in the incident rate of RRT and the lowest percentage of patients presenting within 90 days of starting RRT in the UK. We describe the protocol for a quality improvement project to scale up and evaluate this innovation. Methods The intervention is based upon an off-line database that integrates laboratory results from blood samples taken in all settings stored under different identifying labels relating to the same patient. Graphs of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over time are generated for patients 65 years with an incoming eGFR <40 ml/min/1.73 m2. Graphs where kidney function is deteriorating are flagged by a laboratory scientist and details sent to the primary care doctor (GP) with a prompt that further action may be needed. We will evaluate the impact of implementing this intervention across a large population served by a number of UK renal centres using a mixed methods approach. We are following a stepped-wedge design. The order of implementation among participating centres will be randomly allocated. Implementation will proceed with unidirectional steps from control group to intervention group until all centres are generating graphs of eGFR over time. The primary outcome for the quantitative evaluation is the proportion of patients referred to specialist renal services within 90 days of commencing RRT, using data collected routinely by the UK Renal Registry. The qualitative evaluation will investigate facilitators and barriers to adoption and spread of the intervention. It will include: semi-structured interviews with laboratory staff, renal centre staff and service commissioners; an online survey of GPs receiving the intervention; and focus groups of primary care staff. Discussion Late presentation to nephrology for patients with ESKD is a source of potentially avoidable harm. This protocol describes a robust quantitative and qualitative evaluation of a quality improvement intervention to reduce late presentation and improve the outcomes for patients with ESKD

    Papez’s Forgotten Tract: 80 Years of Unreconciled Findings Concerning the Thalamocingulate Tract

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    The thalamocingulate tract is a key component of the Papez circuit that connects the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) to the cingulum bundle. While the other white matter connections, consisting of the fornix, cingulum bundle and mammillothalamic tract, were well defined in Papez’s original 1937 paper, the anatomy of the thalamocingulate pathway was mentioned only in passing. Subsequent research has been unable to clarify the precise anatomical trajectory of this tract. In particular, the site of thalamocingulate tract interactions with the cingulum bundle have been inconsistently reported. This review aims to synthesize research on this least studied component of the Papez circuit. A systemic approach to reviewing historical anatomical dissection and neuronal tracing studies as well as contemporary diffusion magnetic resonance imaging studies of the thalamocingulate tract was undertaken across species. We found that although inconsistent, prior research broadly encompasses two differing descriptions of how the ATN interfaces with the cingulum after passing laterally through the anterior limb of the internal capsule. The first group of studies show that the pathway turns medially and rostrally and passes to the anterior cingulate region (Brodmann areas 24, 33, and 32) only. A second group suggests that the thalamocingulate tract interfaces with both the anterior and posterior cingulate (Brodmann areas 23 and 31) and retrosplenial region (Brodmann area 29). We discuss potential reasons for these discrepancies such as altering methodologies and species differences. We also discuss how these inconsistencies may be resolved in further research with refinements of terminology for the cingulate cortex and the thalamocingulate tract. Understanding the precise anatomical course of the last remaining unresolved final white matter tract in the Papez circuit may facilitate accurate investigation of the role of the complete Papez circuit in emotion and memory
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