7,215 research outputs found

    Presidential War Powers as a Two-Level Dynamic: International Law, Domestic Law, and Practice-Based Legal Change

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    There is a rich literature on the circumstances under which the United Nations Charter or specific Security Council resolutions authorize nations to use force abroad, and there is a rich literature on the circumstances under which the U.S. Constitution and statutory law allows the President to use force abroad. These are largely separate areas of scholarship, addressing what are generally perceived to be two distinct levels of legal doctrine. This Article, by contrast, considers these two levels of doctrine together as they relate to the United States. In doing so, it makes three main contributions. First, it demonstrates striking parallels between the structure of the international and domestic legal regimes governing the use of force, and it explains how this structure tends to incentivize unilateral action. Second, it theorizes that these two bodies of law are interconnected in previously overlooked ways, such that how the executive branch interprets law at one level is informed by the legal context at the other level. Third, it documents these interactions over time for several important components of the law on the use of force and shows that this two-level dynamic has played a significant role in furthering the practice-based expansion of unilateral war powers. The Article concludes by arguing that both scholars and policy-makers seeking to shape the law on the use of force need to take better account of this dynamic

    Discrete Logarithms in Generalized Jacobians

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    D\'ech\`ene has proposed generalized Jacobians as a source of groups for public-key cryptosystems based on the hardness of the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP). Her specific proposal gives rise to a group isomorphic to the semidirect product of an elliptic curve and a multiplicative group of a finite field. We explain why her proposal has no advantages over simply taking the direct product of groups. We then argue that generalized Jacobians offer poorer security and efficiency than standard Jacobians

    Using Single Molecule Imaging to Explore Intracellular Heterogeneity

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    Despite more than 100 years of study, it is unclear if the movement of proteins inside the cell is best described as a mosh pit or an exquisitely choreographed dance. Recent studies suggest the latter. Local interactions induce molecular condensates such as liquid-liquid phase separations (LLPSs) or non-liquid, functionally significant molecular aggregates, including synaptic densities, nucleoli, and Amyloid fibrils. Molecular condensates trigger intracellular signaling and drive processes ranging from gene expression to cell division. However, the descriptions of condensates tend to be qualitative and correlative. Here, we indicate how single-molecule imaging and analyses can be applied to quantify condensates. We discuss the pros and cons of different techniques for measuring differences between transient molecular behaviors inside and outside condensates. Finally, we offer suggestions for how imaging and analyses from different time and space regimes can be combined to identify molecular behaviors indicative of condensates within the dynamic high-density intracellular environment.Comment: 21 pages, 2 figures, 1 tabl

    Acute Ingestion of a Commercially Available Pre-workout Supplement Improves Anaerobic Power Output and Reduces Muscular Fatigue

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    The effect of a pre-workout supplement on anaerobic power output and muscular fatigue was examined. 18 participants took part in this double-blinded crossover study, reporting for testing on 3 occasions. Participants completed a 6x6 second repeated sprint test, with 20s recovery between sprints. Anaerobic power output was recorded as the highest power achieved during sprint test. Muscular fatigue was reported as a fatigue index across the six sprints ((maximum power – minimum power) ÷ total sprint time). During a baseline visit, participants consumed 250ml of water 30 minutes prior to testing, whilst in subsequent visits a taste-matched placebo (250ml water mixed with sugar-free juice) or a pre-workout supplement (250ml water mixed with one serving of ‘THE PRE’ myprotein.com). Anaerobic power output increased following pre-workout ingestion (pre-workout supplement, 885.8 ± 216.9W; Placebo, 853.6 ± 206.5W; Baseline, 839.3 ± 192.6W). Baseline vs pre-workout supplement (p = 0.01, g = 0.30); Placebo vs pre-workout supplement (p = 0.01, g = 0.20); Baseline vs Placebo (p = 0.59 g = 0.09). Muscular fatigue was reduced following pre-workout ingestion (Baseline, 4.92 ± 1.83W.s; Placebo, 4.39 ± 1.93W.s; pre-workout supplement, 3.31 ± 1.34W.s). Baseline vs pre-workout supplement (p = < 0.01 g = 0.98); Placebo vs pre-workout supplement (p = 0.01, g = 0.63); Baseline vs Placebo (p = 0.20, g = 0.28). Acute ingestion of a pre-workout supplement significantly improves anaerobic power output and attenuates muscular fatigue during repeated sprint cycling

    Medical education on fitness to drive : a survey of all UK medical schools

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    Aim: To identify the extent to which medical aspects of fitness to drive (FTD) are taught within UK medical schools. Methods: A survey of all 32 UK medical schools. In-depth interviews with a range of staff at two medical schools; telephone survey of 30 schools. Results: Two thirds of schools reported specific teaching on medical aspects of FTD but few covered it in any depth or in relation to specific medical conditions. Only one school taught FTD in relation to elderly medicine. FTD was an examination topic at only 12 schools. Conclusion: Teaching on FTD is inconsistent across UK medical schools. Many new doctors will graduate with limited knowledge of medical aspects of FTD

    Disqualifying Federal District Judges Without Cause

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    This Comment will examine the desirability of adopting a without cause disqualification procedure to allow either party to remove a federal district judge from a particular case. After a discussion of the need for disqualification mechanisms, existing procedures for removal, either from a particular case or from the bench entirely, are discussed. Proposals for change, especially the Bayh bills, are outlined and evaluated in light of the practical problems peculiar to the federal district courts. The Comment concludes that a procedure to disqualify federal district judges without cause, as contained in the Bayh bills, is sound and should be adopted. Such a procedure would provide a middle ground between the existing extremes of the practicing attorney\u27s almost total inability to remove a judge from a case and the spectre of removal from the bench entirely; the system should provide a healthy check on federal district judges without undue strain or humiliation for either the lawyers or judges involved

    Family Leadership: Constructing and Testing a Theoretical Model of Family Well-Being

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    Leadership in organizational contexts has received considerable attention through the years. Although much is known about what constitutes effective leadership in an organizational setting, little is known about leadership as it pertains to the family. To address this limitation, a theoretical model of family leadership was developed. This model draws on transformational leadership and proposes five areas in which leadership could be carried out to lead and strengthen the family unit. These five areas include ( 1) leading the family with a vision, (2) maintaining a task orientation, (3) fostering close familial relationships, (4) establishing cooperation and teamwork, and (5) building connections and ties with support networks that are external to the family. In accordance with this theoretical model, it was hypothesized that favorable family outcomes, such as higher levels of cohesion, effective communication, lower levels of conflict, and family involvement are associated with a transformational style of leadership. This hypothesis was tested using a convenience sample of 231 two-parent families. consisting of a father, mother, and an adult child from each family. Family well-being was assessed by each child using The Family Profile, and the leadership style of each parent was assessed using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Using cluster analysis, four combinations of husband-wife leadership styles emerged. Based on these four leadership clusters, ANOV A was used to assess differences in family outcomes. Significant differences were found when comparing the couples characterized by active transformational leadership to those who were passive, or had a laissez-faire style of leadership. Compared to couples with passive leadership styles, couples with active leadership styles tended to have higher scores on the positive dimensions of family wellbeing (Family Concordance, Marital Strength, Active Involvement, and Religiosity) and lower scores on the negative dimension (Family Discordance). With the exception of a difference between the couples in the active leadership cluster and the couples in another cluster on the Religiosity outcome scale, no other differences were found among the couples in the four leadership clusters

    Efficient algorithms for pairing-based cryptosystems

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    We describe fast new algorithms to implement recent cryptosystems based on the Tate pairing. In particular, our techniques improve pairing evaluation speed by a factor of about 55 compared to previously known methods in characteristic 3, and attain performance comparable to that of RSA in larger characteristics.We also propose faster algorithms for scalar multiplication in characteristic 3 and square root extraction over Fpm, the latter technique being also useful in contexts other than that of pairing-based cryptography

    Presidential War Powers as an Interactive Dynamic: International Law, Domestic Law, and Practice-Based Legal Change

    Get PDF
    There is a rich literature on the circumstances under which the United Nations Charter or specific Security Council resolutions authorize nations to use force abroad, and there is a rich literature on the circumstances under which the U.S. Constitution and statutory law allows the President to use force abroad. These are largely separate areas of scholarship, addressing what are generally perceived to be two distinct levels of legal doctrine. This Article, by contrast, considers these two levels of doctrine together as they relate to the United States. In doing so, it makes three main contributions. First, it demonstrates striking parallels between the structure of the international and domestic legal regimes governing the use of force, and it explains how this structure tends to incentivize unilateral action. Second, it theorizes that these two bodies of law are interconnected in previously overlooked ways, such that how the executive branch interprets law at one level is informed by the legal context at the other level. Third, it documents these interactions over time for several important components of the law on the use of force and shows that this two-level dynamic has played a significant role in furthering the practice-based expansion of unilateral war powers. The Article concludes by arguing that both scholars and policy-makers seeking to shape the law on the use of force need to take better account of this dynamic
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