72 research outputs found

    Hippocampal tau oligomerization early in tau pathology coincides with a transient alteration of mitochondrial homeostasis and DNA repair in a mouse model of tauopathy

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    International audienceInsoluble intracellular aggregation of tau proteins into filaments and neurodegeneration are histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Recently, prefibrillar, soluble, oligomeric tau intermediates have emerged as relevant pathological tau species; however, the molecular mechanisms of neuronal responses to tau oligomers are not fully understood. Here, we show that hippocampal neurons in six-month-old transgenic mouse model of tauopathy, THY-Tau22, are enriched with oligomeric tau, contain elongated mitochondria, and display cellular stress, but no overt cytotoxicity compared to the control mice. The levels of several key mitochondrial proteins were markedly different between the THY-Tau22 and control mice hippocampi including the mitochondrial SIRT3, PINK1, ANT1 and the fission protein DRP1. DNA base excision repair (BER) is the primary defense system against oxidative DNA damage and it was elevated in six-month-old transgenic mice. DNA polymerase β, the key BER DNA polymerase, was enriched in the cytoplasm of hippocampal neurons in six-month-old transgenic mice and localized with and within mitochondria. Polβ also co-localized with mitochondria in human AD brains in neurons containing oligomeric tau. Most of these altered mitochondrial and DNA repair events were specific to the transgenic mice at 6 months of age and were not different from control mice at 12 months of age when tau pathology reaches its maximum and oligomeric forms of tau are no longer detectable. In summary, our data suggests that we have identified key cellular stress responses at early stages of tau pathology to preserve neuronal integrity and to promote survival. To our knowledge, this work provides the first description of multiple stress responses involving mitochondrial homeostasis and BER early during the progression of tau pathology, and represents an important advance in the etiopathogenesis of tauopathies

    Chronically stressed or stress-preconditioned neurons fail to maintain stress granule assembly

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    Dysregulation of stress granules (SGs) and their resident proteins contributes to pathogenesis of a number of (neuro)degenerative diseases. Phosphorylation of eIF2α is an event integrating different types of cellular stress and it is required for SG assembly. Phosphorylated eIF2α (p-eIF2α) is upregulated in the nervous system in some neurodegenerative conditions. We found that increasing p-eIF2α level by proteasomal inhibition in cultured cells, including mouse and human neurons, prior to a SG-inducing stress (‘stress preconditioning’), limits their ability to maintain SG assembly. This is due to upregulation of PP1 phosphatase regulatory subunits GADD34 and/or CReP in preconditioned cells and early decline of p-eIF2α levels during subsequent acute stress. In two model systems with constitutively upregulated p-eIF2α, mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking CReP and brain neurons of tau transgenic mice, SG formation was also impaired. Thus neurons enduring chronic stress or primed by a transient mild stress fail to maintain p-eIF2α levels following subsequent acute stress, which would compromise protective function of SGs. Our findings provide experimental evidence on possible loss of function for SGs in certain neurodegenerative diseases

    Atypical, non-standard functions of the microtubule associated Tau protein.

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    Since the discovery of the microtubule-associated protein Tau (MAPT) over 40 years ago, most studies have focused on Tau's role in microtubule stability and regulation, as well as on the neuropathological consequences of Tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. In recent years, however, research efforts identified new interaction partners and different sub-cellular localizations for Tau suggesting additional roles beyond its standard function as microtubule regulating protein. Moreover, despite the increasing research focus on AD over the last decades, Tau was only recently considered as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of AD as well as for neurological pathologies beyond AD e.g. epilepsy, excitotoxicity, and environmental stress. This review will focus on atypical, non-standard roles of Tau on neuronal function and dysfunction in AD and other neurological pathologies providing novel insights about neuroplastic and neuropathological implications of Tau in both the central and the peripheral nervous system

    Synphilin-1 Enhances α-Synuclein Aggregation in Yeast and Contributes to Cellular Stress and Cell Death in a Sir2-Dependent Manner

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    © 2010 Büttner et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.Background: Parkinson’s disease is characterized by the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, known as Lewy bodies, containing both aggregated α-synuclein and its interaction partner, synphilin-1. While synphilin-1 is known to accelerate inclusion formation by α-synuclein in mammalian cells, its effect on cytotoxicity remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings: We expressed wild-type synphilin-1 or its R621C mutant either alone or in combination with α-synuclein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and monitored the intracellular localization and inclusion formation of the proteins as well as the repercussions on growth, oxidative stress and cell death. We found that wild-type and mutant synphilin-1 formed inclusions and accelerated inclusion formation by α-synuclein in yeast cells, the latter being correlated to enhanced phosphorylation of serine-129. Synphilin-1 inclusions co-localized with lipid droplets and endomembranes. Consistently, we found that wild-type and mutant synphilin-1 interacts with detergent-resistant membrane domains, known as lipid rafts. The expression of synphilin-1 did not incite a marked growth defect in exponential cultures, which is likely due to the formation of aggresomes and the retrograde transport of inclusions from the daughter cells back to the mother cells. However, when the cultures approached stationary phase and during subsequent ageing of the yeast cells, both wild-type and mutant synphilin-1 reduced survival and triggered apoptotic and necrotic cell death, albeit to a different extent. Most interestingly, synphilin-1 did not trigger cytotoxicity in ageing cells lacking the sirtuin Sir2. This indicates that the expression of synphilin-1 in wild-type cells causes the deregulation of Sir2-dependent processes, such as the maintenance of the autophagic flux in response to nutrient starvation. Conclusions/Significance: Our findings demonstrate that wild-type and mutant synphilin-1 are lipid raft interacting proteins that form inclusions and accelerate inclusion formation of α-synuclein when expressed in yeast. Synphilin-1 thereby induces cytotoxicity, an effect most pronounced for the wild-type protein and mediated via Sir2-dependent processes.This work was supported by grants from IWT-Vlaanderen (SBO NEURO-TARGET), the K.U.Leuven Research Fund (K.U.Leuven BOF-IOF) and K.U.Leuven R&D to JW, a Tournesol grant from Egide (Partenariat Hubert Curien) in France in collaboration with the Flemish Ministry of Education and the Fund of Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO) in Belgium to JW, MCG and LB, a shared PhD fellowship of the EU-Marie Curie PhD Graduate School NEURAD to JW, MCG and LB, grants of the Austrian Science Fund FWF (Austria) to FM and DR (S-9304-B05), to FM and SB (LIPOTOX), and to SB (T-414-B09; Hertha-Firnberg Fellowship) and an EMBO Installation Grant, a Marie Curie IRG, and a grant of the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (PTDC/SAU-NEU/105215/2008) to TFO. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

    Synthese de nouveaux inhibiteurs des S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase et nucleosidase

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    SIGLECNRS T 58896 / INIST-CNRS - Institut de l'Information Scientifique et TechniqueFRFranc

    Chronic intoxication with 3-nitropropionic acid in rats induces the loss of striatal dopamine terminals without affecting nigral cell viability.

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    3-Nitropropionic acid (3NP) is a succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor allowing the generation of animal models of Huntington's disease. In the present study, we found that a 5-day continuous chronic infusion of 3NP produces loss of [3H]mazindol binding and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the striatal area of degeneration. This loss of dopamine terminals was not due to a loss of nigral neurons since the expression of TH as well as the number of TH-expressing neurons remained unaltered in the substantia nigra of rats treated by 3NP. This suggests that the 3NP-induced dopamine terminal loss is secondarily related to the striatal degeneration andlor to a direct effect of 3NP on striatal terminals and not to a primary effect on nigral cells.Comparative StudyJournal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Adenosine receptors and Huntington's disease: implications for pathogenesis and therapeutics.

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    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating hereditary neurodegenerative disorder, the progression of which cannot be prevented by any neuroprotective approach, despite major advances in the understanding of its pathogenesis. The study of several animal models of the disease has led to the discovery of both loss-of-normal and gain-of-toxic functions of the mutated huntingtin protein and the elucidation of the mechanisms that underlie the formation of huntingtin aggregates and nuclear inclusions. Moreover, these models also provide good evidence of a role for excitotoxicity and mitochondrial metabolic impairments in striatal neuronal death. Adenosine has neuroprotective potential in both acute and chronic neurological disorders such as stroke or Parkinson's disease. Here we review experimental data on the role of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in HD that warrant further investigation of the beneficial effects of A1 agonists and A2A antagonists in animal models of HD. Future pharmacological analysis of adenosine receptors could justify the use of A1 agonists and A2A antagonists for the treatment of HDin clinical trials.Journal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tReviewinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Striatal and cortical neurochemical changes induced by chronic metabolic compromise in the 3-nitropropionic model of Huntington's disease.

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    In the present study, we aimed to determine the time-course of neurochemical changes occurring following metabolic impairments produced by 3-nitropropionic (3NP) acid in a rat model of Huntington's disease. We found that the occurrence of striatal lesions was accompanied by (1) strong transcriptional alterations within the degenerative lateral striatum, (2) receptor upregulations within the preserved medial striatum, and (3) transcriptional increases within the unaltered cerebral cortex. These phenomena were preceded by transcriptional modifications in striatal subareas prone to degeneration even before the lesion was visible but not in the overlying cortex, known to be spared in this model. Of great interest, the density of A(2A) receptor binding sites, located on striato-pallidal neurons, was (1) downregulated at the time of worsening of symptoms and (2) strongly upregulated within the spared medial striatum after the lesion occurrence. This study therefore highlights the differential neurochemical responses produced by 3NP depending on the fate of the metabolically inhibited area and strongly suggests the involvement of A(2A) receptors in the development of striatal pathology under metabolic compromise.Journal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    The peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 downregulates the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein Survivin.

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    The peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase Pin1 and the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) Survivin are two major proteins involved in cancer. They both modulate apoptosis, mitosis, centrosome duplication and neuronal development but until now no functional relationship has been reported between these two proteins. We tested Pin1-induced regulation of Survivin in neuroblastoma cells. Pin1 overexpression in SY5Y neuroblastoma cells decreased Survivin levels. Immunocytochemical studies indicated that they partially co-localized in interphase and mitotic cells. Co-immunoprecipitation further demonstrates the existence of a Pin1/Survivin complex. Pin1-induced effect on Survivin was confirmed in COS cells. RT-PCR and mutagenesis experiments suggested that this Pin1-induced decrease of Survivin occurred at the protein level. Survivin downregulation depended on the binding ability of Pin1 but was not related to the single Thr-Pro site, suggesting an indirect relationship into a protein complex. Finally, this functional regulation of Survivin by Pin1 is reciprocal since Pin1 silencing led to an increase in Survivin levels. The characterization of this functional relationship between Pin1 and Survivin might help to better understand mitosis control and cancer mechanisms.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishe
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