1,684 research outputs found

    Modeling Survival Distributions For Certain Real-World Applications Using Nonparametric Hypothesis Testing

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    By analyzing the failure behavior of the recorded survival data, we expect to analyze the different processing strategies or functionality of the tools or systems used in this nonparametric statistical test. It is anticipated that the test data would either behave exponentially or like the NBUE Property. If the survival results are NBUE, it is anticipated that the suggested treatment plan would be successful. Contrarily, As shown in the application section, if the data are exponential, the suggested treatment plan wont have any positive or negative consequences on patients. We evaluated the suggested tests efficacy and power for both complete and censored data, compared the outcomes with those of existing tests, and then applied the test to a variety of real-world data to demonstrate its validity

    Stellar parameters of Be stars observed with X-shooter

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    Aims. The X-shooter archive of several thousand telluric star spectra was skimmed for Be and Be-shell stars to derive the stellar fundamental parameters and statistical properties, in particular for the less investigated late type Be stars, and the extension of the Be phenomenon into early A stars. Methods. An adapted version of the BCD method is used, utilizing the Balmer discontinuity parameters to determine effective temperature and surface gravity. This method is optimally suited for late B stars. The projected rotational velocity was obtained by profile fitting to the Mg ii lines of the targets, and the spectra were inspected visually for the presence of peculiar features such as the infrared Ca ii triplet or the presence of a double Balmer discontinuity. The Balmer line equivalent widths were measured, but due to uncertainties in determining the photospheric contribution are useful only in a subsample of Be stars for determining the pure emission contribution. Results. A total of 78 Be stars, mostly late type ones, were identified in the X-shooter telluric standard star archive, out of which 48 had not been reported before. The general trend of late type Be stars having more tenuous disks and being less variable than early type ones is confirmed. The relatively large number (48) of relatively bright (V > 8.5) additional Be stars casts some doubt on the statistics of late type Be stars; they are more common than currently thought: The Be/B star fraction may not strongly depend on spectral subtype.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&

    Evaluation of the 55 MPH Speed Limit

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    Pilot-Scale Investigation of Forward/Reverse Osmosis Hybrid System for Seawater Desalination Using Impaired Water from Steel Industry

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    This paper was focused on the investigation of a forward osmosis- (FO-) reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process to cotreat seawater and impaired water from steel industry. By using this hybrid process, seawater can be diluted before desalination, hence reducing the energy cost of desalination, and simultaneously contaminants present in the impaired water are prevented from migrating into the product water through the FO and RO membranes. The main objective of this work was to investigate on pilot-scale system the performance of the combined FO pretreatment and RO desalination hybrid system and specifically its effects on membrane fouling and overall solute rejection. Firstly, optimization of the pilot-scale FO process to obtain the most suitable and stable operating conditions for practical application was investigated. Secondly, pilot-scale RO process performance as a posttreatment to FO process was evaluated in terms of water flux and rejection. The results indicated that the salinity of seawater reduced from 35000 to 13000 mg/L after 3 hrs using FO system, while after 6 hrs it approached 10000 mg/L. Finally, FO/RO system was tested on continuous operation for 15 hrs and it was demonstrated that no pollutant was detected neither in draw solution nor in RO permeate after the end of operating time

    Evaluation of LL 37 Lipoprotein as Innate Immunity Marker among Sudanese Patients Cutaneous Leishmania

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    Background: The leishmaniasis is a group of diseases with a broad range of clinical manifestations caused by several species of parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. LL-37/hCAP18, the only cathelicidin in human, is expressed as an 18-kDa preproprotein. The most prominent function of cathelicidins is their ability to inhibit propagation of a diverse range of microorganisms, which occurs at a micromolar range. Aim: The study was aimed to evaluate the LL37 plasma level in Leishmania Sudanese patients. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, three hundred subjects were enrolled (200 as case and 100 controls). Five ml. of venous blood was collected in EDTA container, then plasma was obtained and stored frozen at -80ºC. LL 37 was estimated using competitive ELISA. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: The results revealed that 115 (57%) of Leishimania patients were male and 85 (43%) were female. Plasma LL 37 level was significantly increased in Leishmania patients (1.30±0.71) compared to the control (0.21±0.20) with (p-value 0.000). Conclusion: Leishmania patients had higher levels of plasma LL37, suggesting effective anti-microbial immunity process enhancing healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Keywords:  Cathelicidins; LL37, Innate Immunity, Leishmania , Sudan

    Evaluation of the Efficiency of N-terminal Pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide for Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction

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    Background: Cardiac diseases are one of the major causes of death worldwide with increasing incidence rate per year, particularly in developing countries such as Sudan owing to urbanization and changing lifestyle. Myocardial infarction is a consequence of the imbalance between the heart blood supply and the required heart cell; this disorder leads to necrosis of myocardium and may cause death. It could be diagnosed by at least two of the following criteria: chest pain, electrocardiography (ECG) elevation, and levels on cardiac biomarkers. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).  Methods: This analytical case–control hospital-based study was conducted on a total of 70 individuals, of which 40 participants were suspected of or diagnosed with AMI, while 30 healthy subjects  were included as a control group. Three ml of venous blood were collected in lithium heparin containers. Troponin I (TnI) as a cardiac biomarker was measured by TOSOH AIA-360, while the NTproBNP level was detected using I-Chroma II. Personal and clinical data were collected directly from each participant using a predesigned questionnaire. Results: A significant increase in the TnI level (mean: 13.13 ± 18.9 ng/ml) and NTproBNP (mean: 5756.5 ± 8378.2 pg/mL) in AMI patients were detected when compared with control mean (0.02 ± 0.00 ng/ml and 57.8 ± 42.32 pg/mL, respectively). Conclusions: NTproBNP gave a high sensitivity (87.5%), specificity (100%), positive predictive value (100%), and negative predictive value (85.7%) in the diagnosis of AMI when compared with another cardiac biomarker such as TnI. Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, NTproBNP, troponin I, Medani Heart Center, Suda

    Effects of administration of 10 nm or 50 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on blood profile, liver and kidney functions in male albino rats

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    This work aimed to investigate the effect of acute and chronic administration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on liver and kidney functions, blood glucose concentration, lipid profile, and haematological parameters in male albino rats. Two experiments were conducted. In acute study: Fifty-four adult mature male rats were randomly assigned into three equal groups (18 per group). Group 1 (control group): in which rats were received intramuscular (i.m) injection of 1 ml normal saline 0.9%. Group 2 (50 nm GNPs group): rats were i.m. injected with a single dose of 75 µg 50 nm GNPs/kg body weight (bwt). In Group 3 (10 nm GNPs group): rats were i.m. injected with a single dose of 75 µg 10 nm GNPs/kg bwt. In chronic study: Eighteen adult male rats were randomly divided into three equal groups (6 per group). Group І (control): rats were intramuscular (i.m) repeatedly injected with 1 ml normal saline 0.9% once/week 5 for weeks. Group 2 (50 nm GNPs): rats were i.m. injected with once/week with a dose of 75 µg 50 nm GNPs/kg bwt) for 5 weeks. In Group 3 (10 nm GNPs): male rats were i.m. injected with once/week with a dose of 75 µg 50 nm GNPs/kg bwt for 5 weeks, followed by 3 weeks washout period for all groups. Blood was collected at 3, 7, and 60 days in acute experiment, while, they were collected only before and after 2 months in chronic experiment. Acute and chronic administration of GNPs (10 or 50 nm size) in male albino rats induced no significant alterations for liver and kidney functions, lipid profile parameters and different haematological parameters at days 3 and 60 of the study. However, on day-7 post-treatment, GNPs-treated rats showed significantly (P <0.05) higher serum ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, glucose, and different lipid profile and decreased HDL level. Chronic administration of 10 nm or 50 nm GNPs significantly (P <0.05) decreased serum glucose levels. In conclusion acute or chronic administration of 10 nm or 50 nm GNPs could alter the liver, kidney functions and blood profile on day 7 post-treatment, however, these values returned to the normal levels on day 60 post- injection. Also, the chronic administration of GNPs induced a hypoglycemic effect in male albino rats

    Clinical Utility of Chest Sonography in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients Focusing on Diaphragmatic Measurements

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    Background There are many methods of evaluating diaphragmatic function, including trans-diaphragmatic pressure measurements, which are considered the key rule of diagnosis. We studied the clinical usefulness of chest ultrasonography in evaluating stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and those in exacerbation, focusing on diaphragmatic measurements and their correlation with spirometry and other clinical parameters. Methods In a prospective case-control study, we enrolled 100 COPD patients divided into 40 stable COPD patients and 60 patients with exacerbation. The analysis included 20 age-matched controls. In addition to the clinical assessment of the study population, radiological evaluation included chest radiographs and chest computed tomography. Transthoracic ultrasonography (TUS) was performed for all included subjects. Results Multiple A lines (more than 3) were more frequent in COPD exacerbation than in stable patients, as was the case for B-lines. TUS significantly showed high specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy in detecting pleural effusion, consolidation, pneumothorax, and lung mass. Diaphragmatic measurements were significantly lower among stable COPD subjects than healthy controls. Diaphragmatic thickness and excursion displayed a significant negative correlation with body mass index and the dyspnea scale, and a positive correlation with spirometry measures. Patients in Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) group D showed lower diaphragmatic measurements (thickness and excursion). Conclusion The TUS of COPD patients both in stable and exacerbated conditions and the assessment of diaphragm excursion and thickness by TUS in COPD patients and their correlations to disease-related factors proved informative and paved the way for the better management of COPD patients

    Efficacy and safety of Elagolix in the treatment of endometriosis associated pain: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

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    Background: Endometriosis commonly presents with dysmenorrhea, non-menstrual pelvic pain, and infertility. Elagolix is an oral, short-acting, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist acting through complete estrogen suppression. Objective: To evaluate the evidence from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the efficacy and safety of Elagolix in the treatment of endometriosis associated pain. Search strategy: Electronic databases containing articles published between January 2000 and February 2020 were searched using the MeSH terms (Elagolix OR gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist OR GnRH antagonist OR antigonadotropin) AND (endometriosis) AND (pelvic pain). Selection criteria: All RCTs assessing the efficacy of Elagolix in the treatment of pain associated with endometriosis were considered for this network meta-analysis, where five studies were deemed eligible for this review. Data collection and analysis: The mean difference (MD) and confidence intervals (95% CI) for continuous outcomes including analgesic use, dysmenorrhea, non-menstrual pelvic pain, and quality of life were calculated. Main results: Elagolix 250 mg reduced dysmenorrhea significantly, as compared to placebo, (MD = -0.41, 95% CI [-0.7, -0.13]) at 12 weeks, while Elagolix 200 mg reduced dysmenorrhea significantly (MD= -1.2, 95% CI [-1.9, -0.57]) compared to placebo after 24 weeks of treatment. Conclusions: Elagolix 200 mg seems to be an effective drug with fewer side effects when used to reduce dysmenorrhea and non-menstrual pelvic pain after 24 weeks of treatment in patients with endometriosis
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