3,668 research outputs found

    1-d gravity in infinite point distributions

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    The dynamics of infinite, asymptotically uniform, distributions of self-gravitating particles in one spatial dimension provides a simple toy model for the analogous three dimensional problem. We focus here on a limitation of such models as treated so far in the literature: the force, as it has been specified, is well defined in infinite point distributions only if there is a centre of symmetry (i.e. the definition requires explicitly the breaking of statistical translational invariance). The problem arises because naive background subtraction (due to expansion, or by "Jeans' swindle" for the static case), applied as in three dimensions, leaves an unregulated contribution to the force due to surface mass fluctuations. Following a discussion by Kiessling, we show that the problem may be resolved by defining the force in infinite point distributions as the limit of an exponentially screened pair interaction. We show that this prescription gives a well defined (finite) force acting on particles in a class of perturbed infinite lattices, which are the point processes relevant to cosmological N-body simulations. For identical particles the dynamics of the simplest toy model is equivalent to that of an infinite set of points with inverted harmonic oscillator potentials which bounce elastically when they collide. We discuss previous results in the literature, and present new results for the specific case of this simplest (static) model starting from "shuffled lattice" initial conditions. These show qualitative properties (notably its "self-similarity") of the evolution very similar to those in the analogous simulations in three dimensions, which in turn resemble those in the expanding universe.Comment: 20 pages, 8 figures, small changes (section II shortened, added discussion in section IV), matches final version to appear in PR

    Field theory of self-organized fractal etching

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    We propose a phenomenological field theoretical approach to the chemical etching of a disordered-solid. The theory is based on a recently proposed dynamical etching model. Through the introduction of a set of Langevin equations for the model evolution, we are able to map the problem into a field theory related to isotropic percolation. To the best of the authors knowledge, it constitutes the first application of field theory to a problem of chemical dynamics. By using this mapping, many of the etching process critical properties are seen to be describable in terms of the percolation renormalization group fixed point. The emerging field theory has the peculiarity of being ``{\it self-organized}'', in the sense that without any parameter fine-tuning, the system develops fractal properties up to certain scale controlled solely by the volume, VV, of the etching solution. In the limit V‚Üí‚ąěV \to \infty the upper cut-off goes to infinity and the system becomes scale invariant. We present also a finite size scaling analysis and discuss the relation of this particular etching mechanism with Gradient Percolation. Finally, the possibility of considering this mechanism as a new generic path to self-organized criticality is analyzed, with the characteristics of being closely related to a real physical system and therefore more directly accessible to experiments.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figures. Submitted to Phys. Rev.

    A perturbative approach to the Bak-Sneppen Model

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    We study the Bak-Sneppen model in the probabilistic framework of the Run Time Statistics (RTS). This model has attracted a large interest for its simplicity being a prototype for the whole class of models showing Self-Organized Criticality. The dynamics is characterized by a self-organization of almost all the species fitnesses above a non-trivial threshold value, and by a lack of spatial and temporal characteristic scales. This results in {\em avalanches} of activity power law distributed. In this letter we use the RTS approach to compute the value of xcx_c, the value of the avalanche exponent ŌĄ\tau and the asymptotic distribution of minimal fitnesses.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, to be published on Physical Review Letter

    Statistical properties of fractures in damaged materials

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    We introduce a model for the dynamics of mud cracking in the limit of of extremely thin layers. In this model the growth of fracture proceeds by selecting the part of the material with the smallest (quenched) breaking threshold. In addition, weakening affects the area of the sample neighbour to the crack. Due to the simplicity of the model, it is possible to derive some analytical results. In particular, we find that the total time to break down the sample grows with the dimension L of the lattice as L^2 even though the percolating cluster has a non trivial fractal dimension. Furthermore, we obtain a formula for the mean weakening with time of the whole sample.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, to be published in Europhysics Letter

    Combination of the searches for the low-mass Standard Model Higgs boson with ATLAS detector

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    In this paper, a brief overview of the results, based on proton-proton collision data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of 7TeV in 2011 and 8TeV in 2012, for the properties of a new Higgs-like particle at 125.5 GeV are presented

    Combinatorics of lattice paths with and without spikes

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    We derive a series of results on random walks on a d-dimensional hypercubic lattice (lattice paths). We introduce the notions of terse and simple paths corresponding to the path having no backtracking parts (spikes). These paths label equivalence classes which allow a rearrangement of the sum over paths. The basic combinatorial quantities of this construction are given. These formulas are useful when performing strong coupling (hopping parameter) expansions of lattice models. Some applications are described.Comment: Latex. 25 page
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