28 research outputs found

    Inefficient Toll-Like Receptor-4 Stimulation Enables Bordetella parapertussis to Avoid Host Immunity

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    The recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by host Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 is a crucial step in developing protective immunity against several gram negative bacterial pathogens. Bordetella bronchiseptica and B. pertussis stimulate robust TLR4 responses that are required to control the infection, but a close relative, B. parapertussis, poorly stimulates this receptor, and TLR4 deficiency does not affect its course of infection. This led us to hypothesize that inefficient TLR4 stimulation enables B. parapertussis to evade host immunity. In a mouse model of infection, B. parapertussis grew rapidly in the lungs, but no measurable increase in TLR4-mediated cytokine, chemokine, or leukocyte responses were observed over the first few days of infection. Delivery of a TLR4 stimulant in the inoculum resulted in a robust inflammatory response and a 10- to 100-fold reduction of B. parapertussis numbers. As we have previously shown, B. parapertussis grows efficiently during the first week of infection even in animals passively immunized with antibodies. We show that this evasion of antibody-mediated clearance is dependent on the lack of TLR4 stimulation by B. parapertussis as co-inoculation with a TLR4 agonist resulted in 10,000-fold lower B. parapertussis numbers on day 3 in antibody-treated wild type, but not TLR4-deficient, mice. Together, these results indicate that inefficient TLR4 stimulation by B. parapertussis enables it to avoid host immunity and grow to high numbers in the respiratory tract of naïve and immunized hosts

    O Antigen Allows B. parapertussis to Evade B. pertussis Vaccine–Induced Immunity by Blocking Binding and Functions of Cross-Reactive Antibodies

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    Although the prevalence of Bordetella parapertussis varies dramatically among studies in different populations with different vaccination regimens, there is broad agreement that whooping cough vaccines, composed only of B. pertussis antigens, provide little if any protection against B. parapertussis. In C57BL/6 mice, a B. pertussis whole-cell vaccine (wP) provided modest protection against B. parapertussis, which was dependent on IFN-γ. The wP was much more protective against an isogenic B. parapertussis strain lacking O-antigen than its wild-type counterpart. O-antigen inhibited binding of wP–induced antibodies to B. parapertussis, as well as antibody-mediated opsonophagocytosis in vitro and clearance in vivo. aP–induced antibodies also bound better in vitro to the O-antigen mutant than to wild-type B. parapertussis, but aP failed to confer protection against wild-type or O antigen–deficient B. parapertussis in mice. Interestingly, B. parapertussis–specific antibodies provided in addition to either wP or aP were sufficient to very rapidly reduce B. parapertussis numbers in mouse lungs. This study identifies a mechanism by which one pathogen escapes immunity induced by vaccination against a closely related pathogen and may explain why B. parapertussis prevalence varies substantially between populations with different vaccination strategies

    Network model of immune responses reveals key effectors to single and co-infection dynamics by a respiratory bacterium and a gastrointestinal helminth

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    Co-infections alter the host immune response but how the systemic and local processes at the site of infection interact is still unclear. The majority of studies on co-infections concentrate on one of the infecting species, an immune function or group of cells and often focus on the initial phase of the infection. Here, we used a combination of experiments and mathematical modelling to investigate the network of immune responses against single and co-infections with the respiratory bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and the gastrointestinal helminth Trichostrongylus retortaeformis. Our goal was to identify representative mediators and functions that could capture the essence of the host immune response as a whole, and to assess how their relative contribution dynamically changed over time and between single and co-infected individuals. Network-based discrete dynamic models of single infections were built using current knowledge of bacterial and helminth immunology; the two single infection models were combined into a co-infection model that was then verified by our empirical findings. Simulations showed that a T helper cell mediated antibody and neutrophil response led to phagocytosis and clearance of B. bronchiseptica from the lungs. This was consistent in single and co-infection with no significant delay induced by the helminth. In contrast, T. retortaeformis intensity decreased faster when co-infected with the bacterium. Simulations suggested that the robust recruitment of neutrophils in the co-infection, added to the activation of IgG and eosinophil driven reduction of larvae, which also played an important role in single infection, contributed to this fast clearance. Perturbation analysis of the models, through the knockout of individual nodes (immune cells), identified the cells critical to parasite persistence and clearance both in single and co-infections. Our integrated approach captured the within-host immuno-dynamics of bacteria-helminth infection and identified key components that can be crucial for explaining individual variability between single and co-infections in natural populations

    Bordetella pertussis Infection or Vaccination Substantially Protects Mice against B. bronchiseptica Infection

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    Although B. bronchiseptica efficiently infects a wide range of mammalian hosts and efficiently spreads among them, it is rarely observed in humans. In contrast to the many other hosts of B. bronchiseptica, humans are host to the apparently specialized pathogen B. pertussis, the great majority having immunity due to vaccination, infection or both. Here we explore whether immunity to B. pertussis protects against B. bronchiseptica infection. In a murine model, either infection or vaccination with B. pertussis induced antibodies that recognized antigens of B. bronchiseptica and protected the lower respiratory tract of mice against three phylogenetically disparate strains of B. bronchiseptica that efficiently infect naïve animals. Furthermore, vaccination with purified B. pertussis-derived pertactin, filamentous hemagglutinin or the human acellular vaccine, Adacel, conferred similar protection against B. bronchiseptica challenge. These data indicate that individual immunity to B. pertussis affects B. bronchiseptica infection, and suggest that the high levels of herd immunity against B. pertussis in humans could explain the lack of observed B. bronchiseptica transmission. This could also explain the apparent association of B. bronchiseptica infections with an immunocompromised state

    Boolean network simulations for life scientists

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    Modern life sciences research increasingly relies on computational solutions, from large scale data analyses to theoretical modeling. Within the theoretical models Boolean networks occupy an increasing role as they are eminently suited at mapping biological observations and hypotheses into a mathematical formalism. The conceptual underpinnings of Boolean modeling are very accessible even without a background in quantitative sciences, yet it allows life scientists to describe and explore a wide range of surprisingly complex phenomena. In this paper we provide a clear overview of the concepts used in Boolean simulations, present a software library that can perform these simulations based on simple text inputs and give three case studies. The large scale simulations in these case studies demonstrate the Boolean paradigms and their applicability as well as the advanced features and complex use cases that our software package allows. Our software is distributed via a liberal Open Source license and is freely accessible fro

    Immunoproteomics Analysis of the Murine Antibody Response to Vaccination with an Improved Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS)

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    Background: Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis is the causative agent of a spectrum of diseases collectively known as tularemia. An attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS) has been shown to be efficacious in humans, but safety concerns have prevented its licensure by the FDA. Recently, F. tularensis LVS has been produced under Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP guidelines). Little is known about the immunogenicity of this new vaccine preparation in comparison with extensive studies conducted with laboratory passaged strains of LVS. Thus, the aim of the current work was to evaluate the repertoire of antibodies produced in mouse strains vaccinated with the new LVS vaccine preparation. Methodology/Principal Findings: In the current study, we used an immunoproteomics approach to examine the repertoire of antibodies induced following successful immunization of BALB/c versus unsuccessful vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with the new preparation of F. tularensis LVS. Successful vaccination of BALB/c mice elicited antibodies to nine identified proteins that were not recognized by antisera from vaccinated but unprotected C57BL/6 mice. In addition, the CGMP formulation of LVS stimulated a greater repertoire of antibodies following vaccination compared to vaccination with laboratory passaged ATCC LVS strain. A total of 15 immunoreactive proteins were identified in both studies, however, 16 immunoreactive proteins were uniquely reactive with sera from the new formulation of LVS. Conclusions/Significance: This is the first report characterising the antibody based immune response of the new formulation of LVS in the widely used murine model of tularemia. Using two mouse strains, we show that successfully vaccinated mice can be distinguished from unsuccessfully vaccinated mice based upon the repertoire of antibodies generated. This opens the door towards downselection of antigens for incorporation into tularemia subunit vaccines. In addition, this work also highlights differences in the humoral immune response to vaccination with the commonly used laboratory LVS strain and the new vaccine formulation of LVS.Peer reviewed: YesNRC publication: Ye

    Lung response to Bordetella pertussis infection in mice identified by gene-expression profiling

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    Host genetics determines the course of Bordetella pertussis infection in mice. Previously, we found four loci, Tlr4 and three novel loci, designated Bps 1–3, that are involved in the control of B. pertussis infection. The purpose of the present study was to identify candidate genes that could explain genetic differences in the course of B. pertussis infection, assuming that such genes are differentially regulated upon infection. We, therefore, studied the course of mRNA expression in the lungs after B. pertussis infection. Of the 22,000 genes investigated, 1,841 were significantly differentially expressed with 1,182 genes upregulated and 659 genes downregulated. Upregulated genes were involved in immune-related processes, such as the acute-phase response, antigen presentation, cytokine production, inflammation, and apoptosis, while downregulated genes were mainly involved in nonimmune processes, such as development and muscle contraction. Pathway analysis revealed the involvement of granulocyte function, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and apoptosis. Nine of the differentially expressed genes were located in Bps-1, 13 were located in Bps-2, and 62 were located in Bps-3. We conclude that B. pertussis infection induces a wide and complex response, which appears to be partly specific for B. pertussis and partly nonspecific. We envisage that these data will be helpful in identifying polymorphic genes that affect the susceptibility and course of B. pertussis infection in humans

    Comparative genomics of prevaccination and modern Bordetella pertussis strains

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    Contains fulltext : 89571.pdf (publisher's version ) (Open Access)BACKGROUND: Despite vaccination since the 1950s, pertussis has persisted and resurged. It remains a major cause of infant death worldwide and is the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease in developed countries. The resurgence of pertussis has been associated with the expansion of Bordetella pertussis strains with a novel allele for the pertussis toxin (Ptx) promoter, ptxP3, which have replaced resident ptxP1 strains. Compared to ptxP1 strains, ptxP3 produce more Ptx resulting in increased virulence and immune suppression. To elucidate how B. pertussis has adapted to vaccination, we compared genome sequences of two ptxP3 strains with four strains isolated before and after the introduction vaccination. RESULTS: The distribution of SNPs in regions involved in transcription and translation suggested that changes in gene regulation play an important role in adaptation. No evidence was found for acquisition of novel genes. Modern strains differed significantly from prevaccination strains, both phylogenetically and with respect to particular alleles. The ptxP3 strains were found to have diverged recently from modern ptxP1 strains. Differences between ptxP3 and modern ptxP1 strains included SNPs in a number of pathogenicity-associated genes. Further, both gene inactivation and reactivation was observed in ptxP3 strains relative to modern ptxP1 strains. CONCLUSIONS: Our work suggests that B. pertussis adapted by successive accumulation of SNPs and by gene (in)activation. In particular changes in gene regulation may have played a role in adaptation

    A LysM and SH3-Domain Containing Region of the Listeria monocytogenes p60 Protein Stimulates Accessory Cells to Promote Activation of Host NK Cells

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    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection induces rapid and robust activation of host natural killer (NK) cells. Here we define a region of the abundantly secreted Lm endopeptidase, p60, that potently but indirectly stimulates NK cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Lm expression of p60 resulted in increased IFNγ production by naïve NK cells co-cultured with treated dendritic cells (DCs). Moreover, recombinant p60 protein stimulated activation of naive NK cells when co-cultured with TLR or cytokine primed DCs in the absence of Lm. Intact p60 protein weakly digested bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN), but neither muropeptide recognition by RIP2 nor the catalytic activity of p60 was required for NK cell activation. Rather, the immune stimulating activity mapped to an N-terminal region of p60, termed L1S. Treatment of DCs with a recombinant L1S polypeptide stimulated them to activate naïve NK cells in a cell culture model. Further, L1S treatment activated NK cells in vivo and increased host resistance to infection with Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS). These studies demonstrate an immune stimulating function for a bacterial LysM domain-containing polypeptide and suggest that recombinant versions of L1S or other p60 derivatives can be used to promote NK cell activation in therapeutic contexts
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