267 research outputs found

    Distribution, Population Biology, and Trophic Ecology of the Deepwater Demersal Fish Halosauropsis macrochir (Pisces: Halosauridae) on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Get PDF
    Halosauropsis macrochir ranked amongst the most abundant and widespread demersal fishes on the mid-Atlantic Ridge of the North Atlantic (Iceland-Azores) with greatest abundance at 1700–3500 m. All sizes, ranging from 10–76 cm total length, occurred in the area without any apparent spatial pattern or depth trend. Using otolith sections displaying growth increments assumed to represent annuli, the age range recorded was 2–36 years, but most individuals were <20 years. Length and weight at age data were used to fit growth models. No differences between sexes in length and weight at age were observed. The majority of samples had a surplus of males. Diet analysis showed that H. macrochir feeds on Crustacea, Teleostei, Polychaeta, and Cephalopoda, but few prey could be identified to lower taxonomical levels. The mid-Atlantic Ridge constitutes a major portion of the North Atlantic living space of the abyssal halosaur where it completes its full life cycle, primarily as an actively foraging euryophagous micronekton/epibenthos and infauna feeder, becoming a partial piscivore with increasing size

    Effects of mannoprotein E1 in liquid diet on inflammatory response and TLR5 expression in the gut of rats infected by Salmonella typhimurium

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Mannoproteins are yeast cell wall componend, and rich in mannose. The use of foods rich in mannose as carbohydrate, could have a bioprotective effect against entrobacteria intestinal infection. Nothing is known about mannoproteins' activity in inflammatory bowel processes induced by entrobacteria.</p> <p>This study investigates the effects of mannoprotein administration via a liquid diet on inflammatory response and TLR5 expression during intestinal tissue injury in a rat model of infection with <it>Salmonella typhimurium</it>.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Adult Wistar male rats were divided into three groups: control, and mannoprotein E<sub>1 </sub>at 10 or 15%. Animals were fed with a liquid diet supplemented or not with mannoprotein E<sub>1</sub>. Groups were infected by intragastrical administration of <it>S. typhimurium</it>. 24 h post-inoculation samples of spleen, ileum and liver were collected for microbiological studies. Gut samples were processed to determine levels of proinflammatory cytokines (mRNA) and TLR5 (mRNA and protein) by quantitative PCR and Western-blot, and the number of proliferative and apoptotic cells determined by immunohistochemistry.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Ininfected levels of proinflammatory cytokines and TLR5 were higher in untreated controls than in the animals receiving mannoprotein. Proliferation was similar in both groups, whereas apoptosis was higher in controls. Curiosly, the mannoprotein effect was dose dependent.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Mannoprotein administration in a liquid diet seems to protect intestinal tissue against <it>S. typhimurium </it>infection. This protection seems to expressed as a lower pro-inflammatory response and TLR5 downregulation in gut epithelium, as well as by an inhibition of apoptosis. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism by which mannoprotein is able to regulate these responses remain unclear. These results could open up new avenues in the use of mannoproteins as prebiotics in the therapeutic strategy for treatment of inflammatory gut processes induced by microbia.</p

    Local therapy with CpG motifs in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation in IFN-β knock-out mice

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) are capable of inducing high amounts of type I IFNs with many immunomodulatory properties. Furthermore, type-I IFNs have been proposed to play a key role in mediating effects of CpG-ODN. The precise role of IFN-β in the immunomodulatory effects of CpG-ODN is not known. OBJECTIVE: Here, we aimed to elucidate the role of IFN-β in the anti-allergic effect of CpG motifs. METHODS: We assessed the immune response in OVA-primed/OVA-challenged IFN-β knockout (-/-) mice compared to wild type (WT) control, after intranasal and systemic treatment with synthetic CpG motifs. RESULTS: Vaccination with CpG-ODN reduced the number of cells in airways of OVA-sensitized WT but not IFN-β-/- mice. Although airway eosinophilia was reduced in both treated groups, they were significantly higher in IFN-β(-)/- mice. Other inflammatory cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages were enhanced in airways by CpG treatment in IFN-β-/- mice. The ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 cytokines in airways was significantly skewed to a Th1 response in WT compared to IFN-β(-)/- group. In contrast, IL-4 and IgE were reduced with no differences between groups. Ag-specific T-cell proliferation, Th1-cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-2 and also IL-12 were significantly lower in IFN-β-/- mice. Surprisingly, we discovered that intranasal treatment of mice with CpG-ODN results in mild synovitis particularly in IFN-β-/- mice. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that induction of Th1 response by therapy with CpG-ODN is only slightly and partially dependent on IFN-β, while IFN-β is not an absolute requirement for suppression of airway eosinophilia and IgE. Furthermore, our finding of mild synovitis is a warning for possible negative effects of CpG-ODN vaccination

    Generation of a Convalescent Model of Virulent Francisella tularensis Infection for Assessment of Host Requirements for Survival of Tularemia

    Get PDF
    Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of tularemia. Development of novel vaccines and therapeutics for tularemia has been hampered by the lack of understanding of which immune components are required to survive infection. Defining these requirements for protection against virulent F. tularensis, such as strain SchuS4, has been difficult since experimentally infected animals typically die within 5 days after exposure to as few as 10 bacteria. Such a short mean time to death typically precludes development, and therefore assessment, of immune responses directed against virulent F. tularensis. To enable identification of the components of the immune system that are required for survival of virulent F. tularensis, we developed a convalescent model of tularemia in C57Bl/6 mice using low dose antibiotic therapy in which the host immune response is ultimately responsible for clearance of the bacterium. Using this model we demonstrate αβTCR+ cells, γδTCR+ cells, and B cells are necessary to survive primary SchuS4 infection. Analysis of mice deficient in specific soluble mediators shows that IL-12p40 and IL-12p35 are essential for survival of SchuS4 infection. We also show that IFN-γ is required for survival of SchuS4 infection since mice lacking IFN-γR succumb to disease during the course of antibiotic therapy. Finally, we found that both CD4+ and CD8+ cells are the primary producers of IFN-γand that γδTCR+ cells and NK cells make a minimal contribution toward production of this cytokine throughout infection. Together these data provide a novel model that identifies key cells and cytokines required for survival or exacerbation of infection with virulent F. tularensis and provides evidence that this model will be a useful tool for better understanding the dynamics of tularemia infection

    Host-Adaptation of Francisella tularensis Alters the Bacterium's Surface-Carbohydrates to Hinder Effectors of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    Get PDF
    The gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis survives in arthropods, fresh water amoeba, and mammals with both intracellular and extracellular phases and could reasonably be expected to express distinct phenotypes in these environments. The presence of a capsule on this bacterium has been controversial with some groups finding such a structure while other groups report that no capsule could be identified. Previously we reported in vitro culture conditions for this bacterium which, in contrast to typical methods, yielded a bacterial phenotype that mimics that of the bacterium's mammalian, extracellular phase.SDS-PAGE and carbohydrate analysis of differentially-cultivated F. tularensis LVS revealed that bacteria displaying the host-adapted phenotype produce both longer polymers of LPS O-antigen (OAg) and additional HMW carbohydrates/glycoproteins that are reduced/absent in non-host-adapted bacteria. Analysis of wildtype and OAg-mutant bacteria indicated that the induced changes in surface carbohydrates involved both OAg and non-OAg species. To assess the impact of these HMW carbohydrates on the access of outer membrane constituents to antibody we used differentially-cultivated bacteria in vitro to immunoprecipitate antibodies directed against outer membrane moieties. We observed that the surface-carbohydrates induced during host-adaptation shield many outer membrane antigens from binding by antibody. Similar assays with normal mouse serum indicate that the induced HMW carbohydrates also impede complement deposition. Using an in vitro macrophage infection assay, we find that the bacterial HMW carbohydrate impedes TLR2-dependent, pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages. Lastly we show that upon host-adaptation, the human-virulent strain, F. tularensis SchuS4 also induces capsule production with the effect of reducing macrophage-activation and accelerating tularemia pathogenesis in mice.F. tularensis undergoes host-adaptation which includes production of multiple capsular materials. These capsules impede recognition of bacterial outer membrane constituents by antibody, complement, and Toll-Like Receptor 2. These changes in the host-pathogen interface have profound implications for pathogenesis and vaccine development

    Measurement of the tt¯tt¯ production cross section in pp collisions at √s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Get PDF
    A measurement of four-top-quark production using proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb−1 is presented. Events are selected if they contain a single lepton (electron or muon) or an opposite-sign lepton pair, in association with multiple jets. The events are categorised according to the number of jets and how likely these are to contain b-hadrons. A multivariate technique is then used to discriminate between signal and background events. The measured four-top-quark production cross section is found to be 26+17−15 fb, with a corresponding observed (expected) significance of 1.9 (1.0) standard deviations over the background-only hypothesis. The result is combined with the previous measurement performed by the ATLAS Collaboration in the multilepton final state. The combined four-top-quark production cross section is measured to be 24+7−6 fb, with a corresponding observed (expected) signal significance of 4.7 (2.6) standard deviations over the background-only predictions. It is consistent within 2.0 standard deviations with the Standard Model expectation of 12.0 ± 2.4 fb

    Measurements of Higgs bosons decaying to bottom quarks from vector boson fusion production with the ATLAS experiment at √=13TeV