7 research outputs found

    The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation

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    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation in smokers and subjects enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Program (referred to as quitters). METHOD: A total of 33 subjects with a median (IQR) smoking history of 34 (20-58) pack years were examined for nasal mucociliary clearance using a saccharine transit test, mucus properties using contact angle and sneeze clearability tests, and quantification of inflammatory and epithelial cells, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid. Twenty quitters (mean age: 51 years, 9 male) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 12 months after smoking cessation, and 13 smokers (mean age: 52 years, 6 male) were assessed at baseline and after 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02136550. RESULTS: Smokers and quitters showed similar demographic characteristics and morbidities. At baseline, all subjects showed impaired nasal mucociliary clearance (mean 17.6 min), although 63% and 85% of the quitters demonstrated significant nasal mucociliary clearance improvement at 1 month and 12 months, respectively. At 12 months, quitters also showed mucus sneeze clearability improvement (∼26%), an increased number of macrophages (2-fold) and no changes in mucus contact angle or cytokine concentrations. CONCLUSION: This study showed that smoking cessation induced early improvements in nasal mucociliary clearance independent of mucus properties and inflammation. Changes in mucus properties were observed after only 12 months of smoking cessation

    Evaluation of nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus physical properties, cellularity and cytokines in nasal lavage of sugarcane workers in São Paulo State

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    A queima de biomassa produz gases tóxicos e partículas suspensas que contribuem para a poluição atmosférica. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos da colheita de cana-de-açúcar queimada sobre o transporte mucociliar (TMC) nasal, as propriedades físicas do muco nasal e celularidade e concentrações de citocinas em lavado nasal (LN) de cortadores de cana-de-açúcar e residentes de região urbana próxima aos canaviais (Mendonça, São Paulo). Métodos: Avaliamos 154 jovens não tabagistas (idade entre 18 e 43 anos) sendo 73 residentes e 81 cortadores na: (a) Pré-safra: 4 meses sem exposição à queimada de biomassa (fevereiro e março), e na (b) Pós-safra: aproximadamente 7 a 8 meses de exposição (outubro e novembro). Avaliamos: o TMC nasal por meio do teste da sacarina (TTS), as propriedades físicas do muco por meio da transportabilidade por alto fluxo e ângulo de contato, a expressão de fator de necrose tumoral (TNF)-, interleucinas (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8 e IL-10 em LN, celularidade total e diferencial em LNsinais vitais e ocorrência de eventos respiratórios. Resultados: Na Pré-safra, comparados com os residentes, cortadores apresentaram menor pressão arterial média (95,5±9,1 e 88,7±9,4 mmHg, respectivamente; p<0,001), frequência cardíaca (76±13 e 70±10 bpm, respectivamente; p<0,003), e células ciliadas (61±20 e 47±18%, respectivamente; p<0,001). Além de TTS mais prolongado (10,4±4,6 e 11,8±5,1, respectivamente; p=0,035), e maior porcentagem de macrófagos em LN (21±15 e 43±15%, respectivamente; p<0,001). Na Pós-safra, comparados com os residentes, os cortadores apresentaram menor pressão arterial média (96,5±9,1 e 92,8±9,6 mmHg, respectivamente; p=0,042), frequência cardíaca (76±14 e 63±11 bpm, respectivamente; p<0,001), IL-4 (0,4±0,5 e 0,3±0,6 pg/ml, respectivamente; p=0,001), células ciliadas (64±19 e 52±14%, respectivamente; p<0,001), células caliciformes em LN (13±14 e 4±5%, respectivamente; p<0,001), assim como maior número de células totais (24±29 e 32±30 104células/ml, respectivamente; p=0,040), neutrófilos (1±2 e 2±3%, respectivamente; p<0,001), eosinófilos (0±0 e 0±1%, respectivamente; p<0,001), macrófagos (21±16 e 40±13%, respectivamente; p<0,001) e IL-6 (2,8±3,4 e 4,0±3,7 pg/ml, respectivamente; p=0,026) em LN. Não houve diferenças significantes nas propriedades físicas do muco, na quantificação da secreção de IL-8 e TNF-, e na porcentagem de linfócitos em LN entre os dois grupos e ao longo do estudo. Conclusão: A queimada de cana-de-açúcar induz alterações na primeira barreira de defesa do sistema respiratório em residentes e em cortadores da área urbana próxima aos canaviais observada por aumento no CO exalado, aumento de celularidade total e redução da concentração de IL-10 em LN em residentes, e prolongamento do TTS acompanhado de aumento na expressão de IL-6 e células ciliadas em LN em cortadoresBiomass burning produces toxic gases and suspended particle that contribute for high levels of air pollution. We aimed to assess the effects of sugarcane harvesting on nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC), mucus physical properties, and celularity and cytokines concentrations in nasal lavage (NL) of sugarcane workers and residents that live near to sugarcane fields (Mendonça, São Paulo). Methods: We evaluated 154 young non-smoking subjects, aged between 18 to 42 years (residents, n=73 and sugarcane workers, n=81) at two time-points: (a) non-harvesting, 4-months of no exposure to biomass burning (in February and March), and (b) harvesting, after 7 to 8-months of exposure to biomass burning (in October and November). We evaluated: Nasal MCC was assessed by saccharine transit test (STT), mucus physical properties were evaluated by sneeze clearability and contact angle, expression of tumor necrosis factor-, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8 e IL-10 in NL and total and differential cells counts in NL, vital signs and respiratory events. Results: At Non-harvesting, compared with residents, sugarcane workers presented lower mean blood pressure (95.5±9.1 and 88.7±9.4 mmHg, respectively; p<0.001), heart rate (76±13 and 70±10 bpm, respectively; p<0.003), and ciliated cells (61±20 and 47±18%, respectively; p<0.001) and prolonged STT (10.4±4.6 and 11.8±5.1, respectively, p=0.035), and higher percentage of macrophages in NL (21±15 and 43±15%, respectively; p<0.001). At Harvesting, compared with residents, sugarcane workers presented lower mean blood pressure (96.5±9.1 and 92.8±9.6 mmHg, respectively; p=0.042), heart rate (76±14 and 63±11 bpm, respectively; p<0.001), IL-4 (0.4±0.5 and 0.3±0.6 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.001), ciliated cells (64±19 and 52±14%, respectively; p<0.001), goblet cells (13±14 and 4±5%, respectively; p<0.001), and higher number of total cells (24±29 and 32±30 104cells/ml, respectively; p=0.040), neutrophils (1±2 and 2±3%, respectively, p<0.001), eosinophils (0±0 and 0±1%, respectively, p<0.001), macrophages (21±16 and 40±13%, respectively, p<0.001) and IL-6 concentration in NL (2.8±3.4 and 4.0±3.7 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.026). There were no significant differences in mucus physical properties, concentration of IL-8 and TNF-, and percentage of lymphocytes in NL between the two groups and along the study. Conclusion: Sugarcane burning induces changes in the first defense barrier of the respiratory system in residents of the urban area near of the sugarcane fields and in sugarcane workers which were observed by increase in exhaled CO and total cell count, and a decrease in IL-10 concentrations in NL in residents, and prolonged STT accompanied by an increase in IL-6 concentration and percentage of ciliated cells in NL in sugarcane worker

    The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation

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    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation in smokers and subjects enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Program (referred to as quitters). METHOD: A total of 33 subjects with a median (IQR) smoking history of 34 (20-58) pack years were examined for nasal mucociliary clearance using a saccharine transit test, mucus properties using contact angle and sneeze clearability tests, and quantification of inflammatory and epithelial cells, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid. Twenty quitters (mean age: 51 years, 9 male) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 12 months after smoking cessation, and 13 smokers (mean age: 52 years, 6 male) were assessed at baseline and after 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02136550. RESULTS: Smokers and quitters showed similar demographic characteristics and morbidities. At baseline, all subjects showed impaired nasal mucociliary clearance (mean 17.6 min), although 63% and 85% of the quitters demonstrated significant nasal mucociliary clearance improvement at 1 month and 12 months, respectively. At 12 months, quitters also showed mucus sneeze clearability improvement (∼26%), an increased number of macrophages (2-fold) and no changes in mucus contact angle or cytokine concentrations. CONCLUSION: This study showed that smoking cessation induced early improvements in nasal mucociliary clearance independent of mucus properties and inflammation. Changes in mucus properties were observed after only 12 months of smoking cessation

    Effects of biomass burning on nasal mucociliary clearance and mucus properties after sugarcane harvesting

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    Objective: Biofuel from sugarcane is widely produced in developing countries and is a clean and renewable alternative source of energy. However, sugarcane harvesting is mostly performed after biomass burning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of harvesting after biomass burning on nasal mucociliary clearance and the nasal mucus properties of farm workers. Methods: Twenty seven sugarcane workers (21-45 years old) were evaluated at the end of two successive time-periods: first at the end of a 6-month harvesting period (harvesting), and then at the end of a 3-month period without harvesting (non-harvesting). Nasal mucociliary clearance was evaluated by the saccharine transit test, and mucus properties were analyzed using in vitro mucus contact angle and mucus transportability by sneeze. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry, body temperature, associated illness, and exhaled carbon monoxide were registered. Results: Data are presented as mean values (95% confidence interval). The multivariate model analysis adjusted for age, body-mass index, smoking status and years of working with this agricultural practice showed that harvesting yielded prolonged saccharine transit test in 7.83 min (1.88-13.78), increased mucus contact angle in 8.68 degrees (3.18-14.17) and decreased transportability by sneeze in 32.12 mm (-44.83 to -19.42) compared with the non-harvesting period. No significant differences were detected in any of the clinical parameter at either time-period. Conclusion: Sugarcane harvesting after biomass burning negatively affects the first barrier of the respiratory system in farm workers by impairing nasal mucociliary clearance and inducing abnormal mucus properties. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico[CNPq 470393/2008-4]Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo[FAPESP 2007/51605-9

    CPAP Has No Effect on Clearance, Sputum Properties, or Expectorated Volume in Cystic Fibrosis

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    BACKGROUND: Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) is used for airway clearance in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Hypertonic saline (HTS) aerosol increases sputum expectoration volume and may improve respiratory secretion properties. CPAP may also be used to maintain airway patency and mobilize secretions. To evaluate if CPAP would increase the beneficial clearance effect of HTS in subjects with CF, we investigated the effects of CPAP alone and CPAP followed by HTS on sputum physical properties and expectoration volume in CF subjects. METHODS: In this crossover study, 15 CF subjects (mean age 19 y old) were randomized to interventions, 48 hours apart: directed coughs (control), CPAP at 10 cm H2O, HTS 7%, and both CPAP and HTS (CPAP+HTS). Sputum collection was performed at baseline and after interventions. Expectorated volume was determined and in vitro sputum properties were analyzed for contact angle and cough clearability. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between any treatment in arterial blood pressure, heart rate, or pulse oximetry, between the 2 time points. HTS and CPAP+HTS improved cough clearability by 50% (P = .001) and expectorated volume secretion by 530% (P = .001). However, there were no differences between control and CPAP on sputum contact angle, cough clearability, or volume of expectorated secretion. CONCLUSIONS: CPAP alone had no effect on mucus clearance, sputum properties, or expectorated volume, and did not potentiate the effect of HTS alone in CF subjects.Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo [07/51605-9]Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paul
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