23 research outputs found

    Nomenclature proposal for picobirnavirus

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    Picobirnaviruses have been identified in the feces of a broad range of hosts by several international research groups. Because there is no standard nomenclature for these viruses, we propose a clear and unique name for each strain.154121953195


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    Rotaviruses present in human and porcine faecal specimens were detected using a coagglutination test. A suspension of Staphylococcus aureus, protein A-positive, coated with group A rotavirus diluted antiserum agglutinated specifically faecal extracts known to be positive for rotavirus by the EIERA test. A total of 89 faecal samples absorbed with S. aureus were tested by the coagglutination test and compared with an enzyme immunoassay (EIERA). The mixture of staphyloccocal cells and diluted serum showed a stability up to 6 months when stored at 4-degrees-C. Statistical analysis of the results showed a close correlation between the two tests (C=0.91). It was concluded that the coagglutination test was a simple, rapid, cheap and sensitive assay for the detection of rotavirus in faecal specimens for routine work.23423924


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    1. Sera from 190 cows and from 72 sheep were examined to compare the results obtained with the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) tests for the diagnosis of bluetongue (BT) disease. 2. In the AGID test, 96 of 190 (50.5%) cattle serum samples and 38 of 72 (52.7%) sheep serum samples were positive, for a total of 134 out of 262 (51.1%) sera. In the IIF test, 98 of 190 (51.6%) cattle serum samples and 39 of 72 (54.2%) sheep serum samples were positive, for a total of 137 out of 262 (52.3%) sera. 3. The fluorescence of the IIF test presented a granular cytoplasmic aspect, which in some cells was observed only on the cell membranes. 4. Statistical analysis of the data showed close agreement between the two techniques, regardless of the kind of sera examined. The IIF test showed high sensitivity (93.8% and 92.1%), specificity (91.4% and 88.2%) and positive (91.8% and 89.7%) and negative (93.48% and 90.9%) predictive values for cattle serum and sheep serum, respectively. 5. The results obtained with IIF were comparable to those obtained with the AGID test, indicating that both techniques can be used routinely in epidemiologic studies of BT. However, the IIF offers the additional advantages that it can be used for antibody quantification and for the detection of viral antigens in BT-infected cell lines.25550350

    Changing distribution of human rotavirus serotypes during two epidemic outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2003-2004: Detection of G6 strains

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    Background: Rotavirus serotypes G1-G4 and G9 are the most important agents of severe diarrhea in children worldwide. Objective: To characterize rotavirus serotypes/genotypes causing two large outbreaks of diarrhea in Campinas, Sao Paulo, during 2003-2004. Study: Rotavirus infection was investigated in 328 stool specimens collected from children and adults with diarrhea by PAGE and RT-PCR and further characterized by semi-nested PCR-typing assays. Results: G3P[8] (26.1%), G9P[8] (18.7%) and GIP[8] (17.9%) were the most frequently detected serotypes/genotypes. G1P[8] was predominant in 2003, but significantly decreased the following year when G3P[81 and G9P[8] prevailed. G5P[8] was identified in about 9% of the typed specimens from each year consistent with its endemic nature in Brazil for over two decades. The other globally common serotypes (G4P[8] and G2P[4]), uncommon G-P combinations, and multiple G serotypes were also found. Rarely found in humans, and not previously reported in Brazil, serotype G6 was identified in three specimens obtained from children in 2004. Conclusion: Multiple rotavirus serotypes were observed co-circulating in the city with serotype predominance changing between the two-year study. This study provides pre-vaccine baseline information on locally endemic strains that might help analysis of post-vaccine data. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.43224424

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus in nonbarrier rat colonies

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    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), a member of the genus Cardiovirus, is an enteric pathogen of mice that causes acute encephalomyelitis followed by persistent central nervous system infection with chronic inflammation and demyelination after intracerebral. inoculation. Although TMEV is a mouse pathogen, antibodies against TMEV strain GDVII have been detected in conventional rat colonies. Natural infection of rats by Cardiovirus has not yet been described. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate TMEV infection of rat colonies by using serologic assays, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, and clinical characterization. Indirect immunofluorescence assay of rat serum samples demonstrated antibodies against TMEV-GDVII in 86.3% of samples analyzed, and 77.2% of the antibody-positive samples had neutralizing antibodies. To determine whether rats can be infected experimentally with TMEV-GDVII, specific pathogen-free newborn mice and rats were inoculated intracerebrally with intestinal suspensions from seropositive rats. Both species showed the typical clinical signs of TMEV infection in mice, which is characterized by flaccid hindlimb paralysis and tremor. RT-PCR in brain tissue of experimentally infected animals detected RNA sequences corresponding to the 5'-noncoding region of Cardiovirus known as the 'internal ribosome entry site.' These results suggest that rats can be naturally infected with TMEV and related Cardiovirus. Therefore, continued health monitoring for TMEV infection should be included in rat colonies mainly because these animals are used for various experimental purposes.55545946