26,525 research outputs found

    Frustrated antiferromagnets with entanglement renormalization: ground state of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on a kagome lattice

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    Entanglement renormalization techniques are applied to numerically investigate the ground state of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on a kagome lattice. Lattices of N={36,144,inf} sites with periodic boundary conditions are considered. For the infinite lattice, the best approximation to the ground state is found to be a valence bond crystal (VBC) with a 36-site unit cell, compatible with a previous proposal. Its energy per site, E=-0.43221, is an exact upper bound and is lower than the energy of any previous (gapped or algebraic) spin liquid candidate for the ground state.Comment: 6 pages, 7 figures, RevTeX 4. Revised version with improved numerical results

    A class of quantum many-body states that can be efficiently simulated

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    We introduce the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA), an efficient representation of certain quantum many-body states on a D-dimensional lattice. Equivalent to a quantum circuit with logarithmic depth and distinctive causal structure, the MERA allows for an exact evaluation of local expectation values. It is also the structure underlying entanglement renormalization, a coarse-graining scheme for quantum systems on a lattice that is focused on preserving entanglement.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

    Optimal distillation of a GHZ state

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    We present the optimal local protocol to distill a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state from a single copy of any pure state of three qubits.Comment: RevTex, 4 pages, 2 figures. Published version, some references adde

    Perfect Sampling with Unitary Tensor Networks

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    Tensor network states are powerful variational ans\"atze for many-body ground states of quantum lattice models. The use of Monte Carlo sampling techniques in tensor network approaches significantly reduces the cost of tensor contractions, potentially leading to a substantial increase in computational efficiency. Previous proposals are based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo scheme generated by locally updating configurations and, as such, must deal with equilibration and autocorrelation times, which result in a reduction of efficiency. Here we propose a perfect sampling scheme, with vanishing equilibration and autocorrelation times, for unitary tensor networks -- namely tensor networks based on efficiently contractible, unitary quantum circuits, such as unitary versions of the matrix product state (MPS) and tree tensor network (TTN), and the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA). Configurations are directly sampled according to their probabilities in the wavefunction, without resorting to a Markov chain process. We also describe a partial sampling scheme that can result in a dramatic (basis-dependent) reduction of sampling error.Comment: 11 pages, 9 figures, renamed partial sampling to incomplete sampling for clarity, extra references, plus a variety of minor change

    Entanglement for rank-2 mixed states

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    In a recent paper, Rungta et. al. [Phys. Rev. A, 64, 042315, 2001] introduced a measure of mixed-state entanglement called the I-concurrence for arbitrary pairs of qudits. We find an exact formula for an entanglement measure closely related to the I-concurrence, the I-tangle, for all mixed states of two qudits having no more than two nonzero eigenvalues. We use this formula to provide a tight upper bound for the entanglement of formation for rank-2 mixed states of a qubit and a qudit.Comment: 5 pages, uses amsthm and mathrsf

    A universal quantum circuit for two-qubit transformations with three CNOT gates

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    We consider the implementation of two-qubit unitary transformations by means of CNOT gates and single-qubit unitary gates. We show, by means of an explicit quantum circuit, that together with local gates three CNOT gates are necessary and sufficient in order to implement an arbitrary unitary transformation of two qubits. We also identify the subset of two-qubit gates that can be performed with only two CNOT gates.Comment: 3 pages, 7 figures. One theorem, one author and references added. Change of notational conventions. Minor correction in Theorem

    Tensor network states and algorithms in the presence of a global SU(2) symmetry

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    The benefits of exploiting the presence of symmetries in tensor network algorithms have been extensively demonstrated in the context of matrix product states (MPSs). These include the ability to select a specific symmetry sector (e.g. with a given particle number or spin), to ensure the exact preservation of total charge, and to significantly reduce computational costs. Compared to the case of a generic tensor network, the practical implementation of symmetries in the MPS is simplified by the fact that tensors only have three indices (they are trivalent, just as the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the symmetry group) and are organized as a one-dimensional array of tensors, without closed loops. Instead, a more complex tensor network, one where tensors have a larger number of indices and/or a more elaborate network structure, requires a more general treatment. In two recent papers, namely (i) [Phys. Rev. A 82, 050301 (2010)] and (ii) [Phys. Rev. B 83, 115125 (2011)], we described how to incorporate a global internal symmetry into a generic tensor network algorithm based on decomposing and manipulating tensors that are invariant under the symmetry. In (i) we considered a generic symmetry group G that is compact, completely reducible and multiplicity free, acting as a global internal symmetry. Then in (ii) we described the practical implementation of Abelian group symmetries. In this paper we describe the implementation of non-Abelian group symmetries in great detail and for concreteness consider an SU(2) symmetry. Our formalism can be readily extended to more exotic symmetries associated with conservation of total fermionic or anyonic charge. As a practical demonstration, we describe the SU(2)-invariant version of the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz and apply it to study the low energy spectrum of a quantum spin chain with a global SU(2) symmetry.Comment: 32 pages, 37 figure

    Entanglement dynamics in the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model

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    The dynamics of the one-tangle and the concurrence is analyzed in the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model which describes many physical systems such as the two-mode Bose-Einstein condensates. We consider two different initial states which are physically relevant and show that their entanglement dynamics are very different. A semiclassical analysis is used to compute the one-tangle which measures the entanglement of one spin with all the others, whereas the frozen-spin approximation allows us to compute the concurrence using its mapping onto the spin squeezing parameter.Comment: 11 pages, 11 EPS figures, published versio
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