17,547 research outputs found

    Toward 959 nematode genomes

    Get PDF
    The sequencing of the complete genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was a landmark achievement and ushered in a new era of whole-organism, systems analyses of the biology of this powerful model organism. The success of the C. elegans genome sequencing project also inspired communities working on other organisms to approach genome sequencing of their species. The phylum Nematoda is rich and diverse and of interest to a wide range of research fields from basic biology through ecology and parasitic disease. For all these communities, it is now clear that access to genome scale data will be key to advancing understanding, and in the case of parasites, developing new ways to control or cure diseases. The advent of second-generation sequencing technologies, improvements in computing algorithms and infrastructure and growth in bioinformatics and genomics literacy is making the addition of genome sequencing to the research goals of any nematode research program a less daunting prospect. To inspire, promote and coordinate genomic sequencing across the diversity of the phylum, we have launched a community wiki and the 959 Nematode Genomes initiative (www.nematodegenomes.org/). Just as the deciphering of the developmental lineage of the 959 cells of the adult hermaphrodite C. elegans was the gateway to broad advances in biomedical science, we hope that a nematode phylogeny with (at least) 959 sequenced species will underpin further advances in understanding the origins of parasitism, the dynamics of genomic change and the adaptations that have made Nematoda one of the most successful animal phyla

    Proactive Scheduling in Cloud Computing

    Full text link
    Autonomic fault aware scheduling is a feature quite important for cloud computing and it is related to adoption of workload variation. In this context, this paper proposes an fault aware pattern matching autonomic scheduling for cloud computing based on autonomic computing concepts. In order to validate the proposed solution, we performed two experiments one with traditional approach and other other with pattern recognition fault aware approach. The results show the effectiveness of the scheme

    State vs. Culture or State ‘and’ Culture vs. the Individual Body: A review analysis

    Get PDF
    This paper reflects on the dichotomy of state and culture through ‘certain groups of people’, impacting their behaviour and wants towards their own health. Analysis commences with a brief commentary on pre-independence India, whereby the rhetoric of nationalism was imprinted on individual bodies through the call for maintaining the health of a nation. This argument is then extended to include the present day-scenario of the state, whereby, the state sees itself as something beyond the individual; where it is the hub of ‘know-how’ of maintaining its population, yet at the same time distant from it. Second section presents the control of culture through community on the bodies of individual members (women). The two arguments are based on the review of an in-depth study by Jeffery and Jeffery (2010) in a village in Uttar Pradesh on the perceptions of the village population on national health policies. The article is concluded, with the necessity to understand and discover discourses of not state vs. culture (or community), but also of state and culture vs. agency vis-à-vis health and health care provisions.

    Corn starch nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization, and utilization as a fat replacer in salad dressing

    Get PDF
    Corn starch nanoparticles (SNPs) were prepared by ultrasonication of starch for 40 min at an amplitude of 40%, which modified some properties of starch so that it could be used as a functional ingredient in food products. The cereal SNPs were characterized on the basis of their morphology, particle size, crystallinity, pasting and functional properties. The SNPs were globular in shape as revealed by TEM. There was a decrease in the crystallanity of SNPs, whereas the functional properties were enhanced in SNPs as compared to raw starch. SNPs had a less paste viscosity as compared to raw starch. Salad dressing was prepared by using SNPs as a fat replacer. The prepared salad dressing was examined for colour, viscosity, and sensory attributes. Overall 60% of fat was replaced using corn SNPs without compromising its quality characteristics

    Molecular Dynamics Study of Self-Diffusion in Zr

    Full text link
    We employed a recently developed semi-empirical Zr potential to determine the diffusivities in the hcp and bcc Zr via molecular dynamics simulation. The point defect concentration was determined directly from MD simulation rather than from theoretical methods using T=0 calculations. We found that the diffusion proceeds via the interstitial mechanism in the hcp Zr and both the vacancy and interstitial mechanisms give contribution in diffusivity in the bcc Zr. The agreement with the experimental data is excellent for the hcp Zr and for the bcc Zr it is rather good at high temperatures but there is a considerable disagreement at low temperatures

    No way out: a study of persistent rough sleeping in Nottingham

    Get PDF

    Post-training depletions of basolateral amygdala serotonin fail to disrupt discrimination, retention, or reversal learning.

    Get PDF
    In goal-directed pursuits, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical in learning about changes in the value of rewards. BLA-lesioned rats show enhanced reversal learning, a task employed to measure the flexibility of response to changes in reward. Similarly, there is a trend for enhanced discrimination learning, suggesting that BLA may modulate formation of stimulus-reward associations. There is a parallel literature on the importance of serotonin (5HT) in new stimulus-reward and reversal learning. Recent postulations implicate 5HT in learning from punishment. Whereas, dopaminergic involvement is critical in behavioral activation and reinforcement, 5HT may be most critical for aversive processing and behavioral inhibition, complementary cognitive processes. Given these findings, a 5HT-mediated mechanism in BLA may mediate the facilitated learning observed previously. The present study investigated the effects of selective 5HT lesions in BLA using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) vs. infusions of saline (Sham) on discrimination, retention, and deterministic reversal learning. Rats were required to reach an 85% correct pairwise discrimination and single reversal criterion prior to surgery. Postoperatively, rats were then tested on the (1) retention of the pretreatment discrimination pair, (2) discrimination of a novel pair, and (3) reversal learning performance. We found statistically comparable preoperative learning rates between groups, intact postoperative retention, and unaltered novel discrimination and reversal learning in 5,7-DHT rats. These findings suggest that 5HT in BLA is not required for formation and flexible adjustment of new stimulus-reward associations when the strategy to efficiently solve the task has already been learned. Given the complementary role of orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning and its interconnectivity with BLA, these findings add to the list of dissociable mechanisms for BLA and orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning

    Strategies for Large-scale Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Get PDF
    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable and biocompatible intracellular polyesters that are accumulated as energy and carbon reserves by bacterial species, under nutrient limiting conditions. Successful large-scale production of PHAs is dependent on three crucial factors, which include the cost of substrate, downstream processing cost, and process development. In this respect, design and implementation of bioprocess strategies for efficient PHA bioconversions enable high PHA concentrations, yields and productivities. Additionally, development of PHA fermentation processes using inexpensive substrates, such as agro-industrial wastes, facilitates further cost reduction, thus benefitting large-scale PHA production. Thus, the aim of this review is to highlight various bioprocess strategies for high production of PHAs and their novel copolymers in relatively large quantities. This review also discusses the application of kinetic analysis and mathematical modelling as important tools for process optimization and thus improvement of the overall process economics for large-scale production of PHAs

    Reducing the risk of acrylamide and other processing contaminant formation in wheat products

    Get PDF
    Wheat is a staple crop, consumed worldwide as a major source of starch and protein. Global intake of wheat has increased in recent years and overall wheat is considered to be a healthy food, particularly when products are made from whole grains. However, wheat is almost invariably processed before it is consumed, usually via baking and/or toasting, and this can lead to the formation of toxic processing contaminants, including acrylamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Acrylamide is principally formed from free (soluble, non-protein) asparagine and reducing sugars (glucose, fructose and maltose) within the Maillard reaction and is classified as a Group 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic to humans). It also has neurotoxic and developmental effects at high doses. HMF is also generated within the Maillard reaction but can also be formed via the dehydration of fructose or caramelisation. It is frequently found in bread, biscuits, cookies, and cakes. Its molecular structure points to genotoxicity and carcinogenic risks. PAHs are a large class of chemical compounds, many of which are genotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic. They are mostly formed during frying, baking and grilling due to incomplete combustion of organic matter. Production of these processing contaminants can be reduced with changes in recipe and processing parameters, along with effective quality control measures. However, in the case of acrylamide and HMF their formation is also highly dependent on the concentrations of precursors in the grain. Here we review the synthesis of these contaminants, factors impacting their production and the mitigation measures that can be taken to reduce their formation in wheat products, focussing on the role of genetics and agronomy. We also review the risk management measures adopted by food safety authorities around the world
    corecore