870 research outputs found

    On projective group properties of the 6D6D pseudo-Riemannian space

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    We study the six-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian spaces with two time-like coordinates that admit non-homothetic infinitesimal projective transformations. The metrics are manifestly obtained and the projective group properties are determined. We also find a generic defining of projective motion in the 6-dimensional rigid h-space.Comment: 4 pages, talk presented at the "Integrable Systems-2005", Prague, 200

    The Orbifolds of Permutation-Type as Physical String Systems at Multiples of c=26 IV. Orientation Orbifolds Include Orientifolds

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    In this fourth paper of the series, I clarify the somewhat mysterious relation between the large class of {\it orientation orbifolds} (with twisted open-string CFT's at c^=52\hat c=52) and {\it orientifolds} (with untwisted open strings at c=26c=26), both of which have been associated to division by world-sheet orientation-reversing automorphisms. In particular -- following a spectral clue in the previous paper -- I show that, even as an {\it interacting string system}, a certain half-integer-moded orientation orbifold-string system is in fact equivalent to the archetypal orientifold. The subtitle of this paper, that orientation orbifolds include and generalize standard orientifolds, then follows because there are many other orientation orbifold-string systems -- with higher fractional modeing -- which are not equivalent to untwisted string systems.Comment: 22 pages, typos correcte

    Toxicity of lunar dust

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    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust properties will be required to provide ground truth for ground-based studies quantifying the toxicity of dust exposure and the associated health risks during future manned lunar missions.Comment: 62 pages, 9 figures, 2 tables, accepted for publication in Planetary and Space Scienc

    Classification of Static Plane Symmetric Spacetimes according to their Matter Collineations

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    In this paper we classify static plane symmetric spacetimes according to their matter collineations. These have been studied for both cases when the energy-momentum tensor is non-degenerate and also when it is degenerate. It turns out that the non-degenerate case yields either {\it four}, {\it five}, {\it six}, {\it seven} or {\it ten} independent matter collineations in which {\it four} are isometries and the rest are proper. There exists three interesting cases where the energy-momentum tensor is degenerate but the group of matter collineations is finite-dimensional. The matter collineations in these cases are either {\it four}, {\it six} or {\it tenComment: 15 pages, LaTex, no figure

    The Hagedorn temperature Revisited

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    The Hagedorn temperature, T_H is determined from the number of hadronic resonances including all mesons and baryons. This leads to a stable result T_H = 174 MeV consistent with the critical and the chemical freeze-out temperatures at zero chemical potential. We use this result to calculate the speed of sound and other thermodynamic quantities in the resonance hadron gas model for a wide range of baryon chemical potentials following the chemical freeze-out curve. We compare some of our results to those obtained previously in other papers.Comment: 13 pages, 4 figure

    On the SO(2,1) symmetry in General Relativity

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    The role of the SO(2,1) symmetry in General Relativity is analyzed. Cosmological solutions of Einstein field equations invariant with respect to a space-like Lie algebra G_r, with r between 3 and 6 and containing so(2,1) as a subalgebra, are also classified.Comment: 10 pages, latex, no figure

    Global Analysis of Data on the Proton Structure Function g1 and Extraction of its Moments

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    Inspired by recent measurements with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab, we perform a self-consistent analysis of world data on the proton structure function g1 in the range 0.17 < Q2 < 30 (GeV/c)**2. We compute for the first time low-order moments of g1 and study their evolution from small to large values of Q2. The analysis includes the latest data on both the unpolarized inclusive cross sections and the ratio R = sigmaL / sigmaT from Jefferson Lab, as well as a new model for the transverse asymmetry A2 in the resonance region. The contributions of both leading and higher twists are extracted, taking into account effects from radiative corrections beyond the next-to-leading order by means of soft-gluon resummation techniques. The leading twist is determined with remarkably good accuracy and is compared with the predictions obtained using various polarized parton distribution sets available in the literature. The contribution of higher twists to the g1 moments is found to be significantly larger than in the case of the unpolarized structure function F2.Comment: 18 pages, 13 figures, to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Quantum Newtonian Dynamics on a Light Front

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    We recall the special features of quantum dynamics on a light-front (in an infinite momentum frame) in string and field theory. The reason this approach is more effective for string than for fields is stressed: the light-front dynamics for string is that of a true Newtonian many particle system, since a string bit has a fixed Newtonian mass. In contrast, each particle of a field theory has a variable Newtonian mass P^+, so the Newtonian analogy actually requires an infinite number of species of elementary Newtonian particles. This complication substantially weakens the value of the Newtonian analogy in applying light-front dynamics to nonperturbative problems. Motivated by the fact that conventional field theories can be obtained as infinite tension limits of string theories, we propose a way to recast field theory as a standard Newtonian system. We devise and analyze some simple quantum mechanical systems that display the essence of the proposal, and we discuss prospects for applying these ideas to large N_c QCD.Comment: 13 pages, 3 figures, LaTex, psfig, references added, APS copyrigh

    Power counting with one-pion exchange

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    Techniques developed for handing inverse-power-law potentials in atomic physics are applied to the tensor one-pion exchange potential to determine the regions in which it can be treated perturbatively. In S-, P- and D-waves the critical values of the relative momentum are less than or of the order of 400 MeV. The RG is then used to determine the power counting for short-range interaction in the presence of this potential. In the P-and D-waves, where there are no low-energy bound or virtual states, these interactions have half-integer RG eigenvalues and are substantially promoted relative to naive expectations. These results are independent of whether the tensor force is attractive or repulsive. In the 3S1 channel the leading term is relevant, but it is demoted by half an order compared to the counting for the effective-range expansion with only a short-range potential. The tensor force can be treated perturbatively in those F-waves and above that do not couple to P- or D-waves. The corresponding power counting is the usual one given by naive dimensional analysis.Comment: 18 pages, RevTeX (further details, explanation added
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