178 research outputs found

    Genomic analysis of the nomenclatural type strain of the nematode-associated entomopathogenic bacterium Providencia vermicola

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    Background: Enterobacteria of the genus Providencia are mainly known as opportunistic human pathogens but have been isolated from highly diverse natural environments. The species Providencia vermicola comprises insect pathogenic bacteria carried by entomoparasitic nematodes and is investigated as a possible insect biocontrol agent. The recent publication of several genome sequences from bacteria assigned to this species has given rise to inconsistent preliminary results. Results: The genome of the nematode-derived P. vermicola type strain DSM_17385 has been assembled into a 4.2 Mb sequence comprising 5 scaffolds and 13 contigs. A total of 3969 protein-encoding genes were identified. Multilocus sequence typing with different marker sets revealed that none of the previously published presumed P. vermicola genomes represents this taxonomic species. Comparative genomic analysis has confirmed a close phylogenetic relationship of P. vermicola to the P. rettgeri species complex. P. vermicola DSM_17385 carries a type III secretion system (T3SS-1) with probable function in host cell invasion or intracellular survival. Potentially antibiotic resistance-associated genes comprising numerous efflux pumps and point-mutated house-keeping genes, have been identified across the P. vermicola genome. A single small (3.7 kb) plasmid identified, pPVER1, structurally belongs to the qnrD-type family of fluoroquinolone resistance conferring plasmids that is prominent in Providencia and Proteus bacteria, but lacks the qnrD resistance gene. Conclusions: The sequence reported represents the first well-supported published genome for the taxonomic species P. vermicola to be used as reference in further comparative genomics studies on Providencia bacteria. Due to a striking difference in the type of injectisome encoded by the respective genomes, P. vermicola might operate a fundamentally different mechanism of entomopathogenicity when compared to insect-pathogenic Providencia sneebia or Providencia burhodogranariea. The complete absence of antibiotic resistance gene carrying plasmids or mobile genetic elements as those causing multi drug resistance phenomena in clinical Providencia strains, is consistent with the invertebrate pathogen P. vermicola being in its natural environment efficiently excluded from the propagation routes of multidrug resistance (MDR) carrying genetic elements operating between human pathogens. Susceptibility to MDR plasmid acquisition will likely become a major criterion in the evaluation of P. vermicola for potential applications in biological pest control

    Transcriptomic and genomic analysis provides new insights in molecular and genetic processes involved in zucchini ZYMV tolerance

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    Cucurbita pepo is highly susceptible to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and the resistance found in several wild species cannot be considered as complete or broad-spectrum resistance. In this study, a source of tolerance introgressed in C. pepo (381e) from C. moschata, in True French (TF) background, was investigated 12 days post-inoculation (DPI) at transcriptomic and genomic levels

    Accelerating tomato breeding by exploiting genomic selection approaches

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    Genomic selection (GS) is a predictive approach that was built up to increase the rate of genetic gain per unit of time and reduce the generation interval by utilizing genome-wide markers in breeding programs. It has emerged as a valuable method for improving complex traits that are controlled by many genes with small effects. GS enables the prediction of the breeding value of candidate genotypes for selection. In this work, we address important issues related to GS and its implementation in the plant context with special emphasis on tomato breeding. Genomic constraints and critical parameters affecting the accuracy of prediction such as the number of markers, statistical model, phenotyping and complexity of trait, training population size and composition should be carefully evaluated. The comparison of GS approaches for facilitating the selection of tomato superior genotypes during breeding programs is also discussed. GS applied to tomato breeding has already been shown to be feasible. We illustrated how GS can improve the rate of gain in elite line selection, and descendent and backcross schemes. The GS schemes have begun to be delineated and computer science can provide support for future selection strategies. A new promising breeding framework is beginning to emerge for optimizing tomato improvement procedures

    A novel PIEZO1 mutation in a patient with dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis: A case report and a brief review of literature

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    open7noThis work was supported by EHA Junior Research Grant to Immacolata Andolfo (3978026), and by Bando Star Linea 1 - JUNIOR PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR GRANTS - COINOR, UniversitĂ  degli Studi di Napoli Federico II to Roberta Russo.Background: Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHS) or hereditary xerocytosis is a rare, autosomal dominant hemolytic anemia characterized by macrocytosis, presence of stomatocytes and dehydration of red blood cells (RBCs). The dehydration is caused by a defect in cellular cation content. The most frequent expression of the pathology is hemolytic well-compensated anemia with high reticulocyte count, a tendency to macrocytosis, increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mild jaundice. We here describe a new mutation of PIEZO1 gene, the most frequent mutated gene in DHS, in a family affected by hereditary hemolytic anemia. Case presentation: We describe the case of a 12-years-old girl with well-compensated chronic hemolysis, increased MCHC and a father who had the same hematological characteristics. After excluding secondary causes of chronic hemolysis and enzymatic defects of the RBCs, microscopic observation of the peripheral blood smear, tests of RBC lysis, ektacytometry, SDS-PAGE and in last instance genetic analysis has been performed. This complex diagnostic workup identified a new variant in the PIEZO1 gene, never described in literature, causative of DHS. This pathogenetic variant was also detected in the father. Conclusions: This case report highlights the importance of a correct and exhaustive diagnostic-workup in patients with clinical suspicious for hemolytic anemia in order to make a differential diagnosis. This is relevant for the management of these patients because splenectomy is contraindicated in DHS due to high thrombotic risk.openZama D.; Giulietti G.; Muratore E.; Andolfo I.; Russo R.; Iolascon A.; Pession A.Zama D.; Giulietti G.; Muratore E.; Andolfo I.; Russo R.; Iolascon A.; Pession A

    Privacy-Preserving Credit Scoring via Functional Encryption

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    The majority of financial organizations managing confidential data are aware of security threats and leverage widely accepted solutions (e.g., storage encryption, transport-level encryption, intrusion detection systems) to prevent or detect attacks. Yet these hardening measures do little to face even worse threats posed on data-in-use. Solutions such as Homomorphic Encryption (HE) and hardware-assisted Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) are nowadays among the preferred approaches for mitigating this type of threats. However, given the high-performance overhead of HE, financial institutions —whose processing rate requirements are stringent— are more oriented towards TEE-based solutions. The X-Margin Inc. company, for example, offers secure financial computations by combining the Intel SGX TEE technology and HE-based Zero-Knowledge Proofs, which shield customers’ data-in-use even against malicious insiders, i.e., users having privileged access to the system. Despite such a solution offers strong security guarantees, it is constrained by having to trust Intel and by the SGX hardware extension availability. In this paper, we evaluate a new frontier for X-Margin, i.e., performing privacy-preserving credit risk scoring via an emerging cryptographic scheme: Functional Encryption (FE), which allows a user to only learn a function of the encrypted data. We describe how the X-Margin application can benefit from this innovative approach and —most importantly— evaluate its performance impact

    Alien Domains Shaped the Modular Structure of Plant NLR Proteins

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    Plant innate immunity mostly relies on nucleotide-binding (NB) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) intracellular receptors to detect pathogen-derived molecules and to induce defense responses. A multitaxa reconstruction of NB-domain associations allowed us to identify the first NB-LRR arrangement in the Chlorophyta division of the Viridiplantae. Our analysis points out that the basic NOD-like receptor (NLR) unit emerged in Chlorophytes by horizontal transfer and its diversification started from Toll/interleukin receptor-NB-LRR members. The operon-based genomic structure of Chromochloris zofingiensis NLR copies suggests a functional origin of NLR clusters. Moreover, the transmembrane signatures of NLR proteins in the unicellular alga C. zofingiensis support the hypothesis that the NLR-based immunity system of plants derives from a cell-surface surveillance system. Taken together, our findings suggest that NLRs originated in unicellular algae and may have a common origin with cell-surface LRR receptors

    Inheritance analysis and identification of SNP markers associated with ZYMV resistance in Cucurbita pepo

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    [EN] Cucurbit crops are economically important worldwide. One of the most serious threats to cucurbit production is Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). Several resistant accessions were identified in Cucurbita moschata and their resistance was introgressed into Cucurbita pepo. However, the mode of inheritance of ZYMV resistance in C. pepo presents a great challenge to attempts at introgressing resistance into elite germplasm. The main goal of this work was to analyze the inheritance of ZYMV resistance and to identify markers associated with genes conferring resistance. An Illumina GoldenGate assay allowed us to assess polymorphism among nine squash genotypes and to discover six polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between two near-isogenic lines, "True French" (susceptible to ZYMV) and Accession 381e (resistant to ZYMV). Two F-2 and three BC1 populations obtained from crossing the ZYMV-resistant Accession 381e with two susceptible ones, the zucchini True French and the cocozelle "San Pasquale," were assayed for ZYMV resistance. Molecular analysis revealed an approximately 90% association between SNP1 and resistance, which was confirmed using High Resolution Melt (HRM) and a CAPS marker. Co-segregation up to 72% in populations segregating for resistance was observed for two other SNP markers that could be potentially linked to genes involved in resistance expression. A functional prediction of proteins involved in the resistance response was performed on genome scaffolds containing the three SNPs of interest. Indeed, 16 full-length pathogen recognition genes (PRGs) were identified around the three SNP markers. In particular, we discovered that two nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) protein-encoding genes were located near the SNP1 marker. 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    HDAC3 is a molecular brake of the metabolic switch supporting white adipose tissue browning.

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    White adipose tissue (WAT) can undergo a phenotypic switch, known as browning, in response to environmental stimuli such as cold. Post-translational modifications of histones have been shown to regulate cellular energy metabolism, but their role in white adipose tissue physiology remains incompletely understood. Here we show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) regulates WAT metabolism and function. Selective ablation of Hdac3 in fat switches the metabolic signature of WAT by activating a futile cycle of de novo fatty acid synthesis and ÎČ-oxidation that potentiates WAT oxidative capacity and ultimately supports browning. Specific ablation of Hdac3 in adipose tissue increases acetylation of enhancers in Pparg and Ucp1 genes, and of putative regulatory regions of the Ppara gene. Our results unveil HDAC3 as a regulator of WAT physiology, which acts as a molecular brake that inhibits fatty acid metabolism and WAT browning.Histone deacetylases, such as HDAC3, have been shown to alter cellular metabolism in various tissues. Here the authors show that HDAC3 regulates WAT metabolism by activating a futile cycle of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, which supports WAT browning