15 research outputs found

    Protein quality control and aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum: From basic to bedside

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    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest membrane-bound compartment in all cells and functions as a key regulator in protein biosynthesis, lipid metabolism, and calcium balance. Mammalian endoplasmic reticulum has evolved with an orchestrated protein quality control system to handle defective proteins and ensure endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. Nevertheless, the accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum may occur during pathological conditions. The inability of endoplasmic reticulum quality control system to clear faulty proteins and aggregates from the endoplasmic reticulum results in the development of many human disorders. The efforts to comprehensively understand endoplasmic reticulum quality control network and protein aggregation will benefit the diagnostics and therapeutics of endoplasmic reticulum storage diseases. Herein, we overview recent advances in mammalian endoplasmic reticulum protein quality control system, describe protein phase transition model, and summarize the approaches to monitor protein aggregation. Moreover, we discuss the therapeutic applications of enhancing endoplasmic reticulum protein quality control pathways in endoplasmic reticulum storage diseases

    A trehalose biosynthetic enzyme doubles as an osmotic stress sensor to regulate bacterial morphogenesis

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    The dissacharide trehalose is an important intracellular osmoprotectant and the OtsA/B pathway is the principal pathway for trehalose biosynthesis in a wide range of bacterial species. Scaffolding proteins and other cytoskeletal elements play an essential role in morphogenetic processes in bacteria. Here we describe how OtsA, in addition to its role in trehalose biosynthesis, functions as an osmotic stress sensor to regulate cell morphology in Arthrobacter strain A3. In response to osmotic stress, this and other Arthrobacter species undergo a transition from bacillary to myceloid growth. An otsA null mutant exhibits constitutive myceloid growth. Osmotic stress leads to a depletion of trehalose-6-phosphate, the product of the OtsA enzyme, and experimental depletion of this metabolite also leads to constitutive myceloid growth independent of OtsA function. In vitro analyses indicate that OtsA can self-assemble into protein networks, promoted by trehalose-6-phosphate, a property that is not shared by the equivalent enzyme from E. coli, despite the latter's enzymatic activity when expressed in Arthrobacter. This, and the localization of the protein in non-stressed cells at the mid-cell and poles, indicates that OtsA from Arthrobacter likely functions as a cytoskeletal element regulating cell morphology. Recruiting a biosynthetic enzyme for this morphogenetic function represents an intriguing adaptation in bacteria that can survive in extreme environments

    Increased BBB Permeability Enhances Activation of Microglia and Exacerbates Loss of Dendritic Spines After Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia

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    Ischemic stroke can induce rapid disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB). It has been suggested that increased BBB permeability can affect the pathological progression of ischemic tissue. However, the impact of increased BBB permeability on microglial activation and synaptic structures following reperfusion after ischemia remains unclear. In this study, we investigated microglial activation, dendritic damage and plasticity of dendritic spines after increasing BBB permeability following transient global cerebral ischemia in the somatosensory cortices in mice. Bilateral common carotid artery ligation (BCAL) was used to induce transient global cerebral ischemia. Mannitol was used to increase the BBB permeability. Intravital two-photon imaging was performed to image the dendritic structures and BBB extravasation. Microglial morphology was quantitated using a skeletonization analysis method. To evaluate inflammation of cerebral cortex, the mRNA expression levels of integrin alpha M (CD11b), CD68, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (IP10) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured by fluorescent quantitative PCR. Intravital two-photon imaging revealed that mannitol caused a drastic increase in BBB extravasation during reperfusion after transient global ischemia. Increased BBB permeability induced by mannitol had no significant effect on inflammation and dendritic spines in healthy mice but triggered a marked de-ramification of microglia; importantly, in ischemic animals, mannitol accelerated de-ramification of microglia and aggravated inflammation at 3 h but not at 3 days following reperfusion after ischemia. Although mannitol did not cause significant change in the percentage of blebbed dendrites and did not affect the reversible recovery of the dendritic structures, excessive extravasation was accompanied with significant decrease in spine formation and increase in spine elimination during reperfusion in ischemic mice. These findings suggest that increased BBB permeability induced by mannitol can lead to acute activation of microglia and cause excessive loss of dendritic spines after transient global cerebral ischemia

    Data_Sheet_1_Increased BBB Permeability Enhances Activation of Microglia and Exacerbates Loss of Dendritic Spines After Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia.docx

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    <p>Ischemic stroke can induce rapid disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB). It has been suggested that increased BBB permeability can affect the pathological progression of ischemic tissue. However, the impact of increased BBB permeability on microglial activation and synaptic structures following reperfusion after ischemia remains unclear. In this study, we investigated microglial activation, dendritic damage and plasticity of dendritic spines after increasing BBB permeability following transient global cerebral ischemia in the somatosensory cortices in mice. Bilateral common carotid artery ligation (BCAL) was used to induce transient global cerebral ischemia. Mannitol was used to increase the BBB permeability. Intravital two-photon imaging was performed to image the dendritic structures and BBB extravasation. Microglial morphology was quantitated using a skeletonization analysis method. To evaluate inflammation of cerebral cortex, the mRNA expression levels of integrin alpha M (CD11b), CD68, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (IP10) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured by fluorescent quantitative PCR. Intravital two-photon imaging revealed that mannitol caused a drastic increase in BBB extravasation during reperfusion after transient global ischemia. Increased BBB permeability induced by mannitol had no significant effect on inflammation and dendritic spines in healthy mice but triggered a marked de-ramification of microglia; importantly, in ischemic animals, mannitol accelerated de-ramification of microglia and aggravated inflammation at 3 h but not at 3 days following reperfusion after ischemia. Although mannitol did not cause significant change in the percentage of blebbed dendrites and did not affect the reversible recovery of the dendritic structures, excessive extravasation was accompanied with significant decrease in spine formation and increase in spine elimination during reperfusion in ischemic mice. These findings suggest that increased BBB permeability induced by mannitol can lead to acute activation of microglia and cause excessive loss of dendritic spines after transient global cerebral ischemia.</p

    Chronic ethanol feeding impairs AMPK and MEF2 expression and is associated with GLUT4 decrease in rat myocardium

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    Chronic and heavy alcohol consumption is one of the causes of heart diseases. However, the effects of ethanol on insulin sensitivity in myocardium has been unclear. To investigate the effects of ethanol on the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), all of which are involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity, in the myocardium, we performed three parts of experiments in vivo and in vitro. I: Rats were injected with 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR, 0.8 mg·kg-1) for 2 h. II: Rats received different dose (0.5, 2.5 or 5 g·kg-1·d-1) of ethanol for 22-week. III: Primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and treated with or without 100 mM ethanol or 1 mM AICAR for 4 h. The cardiac protein and mRNA expression of AMPKα subunits, MEF2 and GLUT4 were observed by western-blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. Serum TNFα levels were assessed by ELISA. The results showed chronic ethanol exposure induced insulin resistance. Ethanol decreased the mRNA levels of AMPKα1 and α2, the protein levels of total- and phospho-AMPKα in cardiomyocytes. Similarly, ethanol showed inhibitory effects on both the mRNA and protein levels of MEF2A and 2D, and GLUT4 in a dose-response-like fashion. Correlation analysis implied an association between phospho-AMPKα and MEF2A or MEF2D, and between the levels of MEF2 protein and GLUT4 transcription. In addition, ethanol elevated serum TNFα level. Taken together, chronic ethanol exposure decreases the expression of AMPKα and MEF2, and is associated with GLUT4 decline in rat myocardium
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