3,288 research outputs found

    Design Considerations for an Upgraded Track-Finding Processor in the Level-1 Endcap Muon Trigger of CMS for SLHC operations

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    The conceptual design for a Level-1 muon track-finder trigger for the CMS endcap muon system is proposed that can accommodate the increased particle occupancy and system constraints of the proposed SLHC accelerator upgrade and the CMS detector upgrades. A brief review of the architecture of the current track-finder for LHC trigger operation is given, with potential bottlenecks indicated for SLHC operation. The upgraded track-finding processors described here would receive as many as two track segments detected from every cathode strip chamber comprising the endcap muon system, up to a total of 18 per 60° azimuthal sector. This would dramatically improve the efficiency of the track reconstruction in a high occupancy environment over the current design. However, such an improvement would require significantly higher bandwidth and logic resources. We propose to use the fastest available serial links, running asynchronously to the machine clock to use their full bandwidth. The work of creating a firmware model for the upgraded Sector Processor is in progress; details of its implementation will be discussed. Another enhancement critical for the overall Level-1 trigger capability for physics studies in phase 2 of the SLHC is to include the inner silicon tracking systems into the design of the Level-1 trigger

    The CMS Modular Track Finder boards, MTF6 and MTF7

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    To accommodate the increase in energy and luminosity of the upgraded LHC, the CMS Endcap Muon Level 1 Trigger system has to be significantly modified. To provide the best track reconstruction, the Trigger system must now import all available trigger primitives generated by Cathode Strip Chambers and by other regional subsystems, such as Resistive Plate Chambers. In addition to massive input bandwidth, this also requires a significant increase in logic and memory resources. To satisfy these requirements, a new Sector Processor unit for muon track finding is being designed. This unit follows the micro-TCA standard recently adopted by CMS. It consists of three modules. The Core Logic module houses the large FPGA that contains the processing logic and multi-gigabit serial links for data exchange. The Optical module contains optical receivers and transmitters; it communicates with the Core Logic module via a custom backplane section. The Look-Up Table module contains a large amount of low-latency memory that is used to assign the final transverse momentum of the muon candidate tracks. The name of the unit — Modular Track Finder — reflects the modular approach used in the design. Presented here are the details of the hardware design of the prototype unit based on Xilinx's Virtex-6 FPGA family, MTF6, as well as results of the conducted tests. Also presented are plans for the pre-production prototype based on the Virtex-7 FPGA family, MTF7

    Overview of large area triple-GEM detectors for the CMS forward muon upgrade

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    In order to cope with the harsh environment expected from the high luminosity LHC, the CMS forward muon system requires an upgrade. The two main challenges expected in this environment are an increase in the trigger rate and increased background radiation leading to a potential degradation of the particle ID performance. Additionally, upgrades to other subdetectors of CMS allow for extended coverage for particle tracking, and adding muon system coverage to this region will further enhance the performance of CMS

    A novel application of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors in MPGD

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    We present a novel application of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors in the construction and characterisation of Micro Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD), with particular attention to the realisation of the largest triple (Gas electron Multiplier) GEM chambers so far operated, the GE1/1 chambers of the CMS experiment at LHC. The GE1/1 CMS project consists of 144 GEM chambers of about 0.5 m2 active area each, employing three GEM foils per chamber, to be installed in the forward region of the CMS endcap during the long shutdown of LHC in 2108-2019. The large active area of each GE1/1 chamber consists of GEM foils that are mechanically stretched in order to secure their flatness and the consequent uniform performance of the GE1/1 chamber across its whole active surface. So far FBGs have been used in high energy physics mainly as high precision positioning and re-positioning sensors and as low cost, easy to mount, low space consuming temperature sensors. FBGs are also commonly used for very precise strain measurements in material studies. In this work we present a novel use of FBGs as flatness and mechanical tensioning sensors applied to the wide GEM foils of the GE1/1 chambers. A network of FBG sensors have been used to determine the optimal mechanical tension applied and to characterise the mechanical tension that should be applied to the foils. We discuss the results of the test done on a full-sized GE1/1 final prototype, the studies done to fully characterise the GEM material, how this information was used to define a standard assembly procedure and possible future developments.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, presented by Luigi Benussi at MPGD 2015 (Trieste, Italy). arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1512.0848

    Development and performance of Triple-GEM detectors for the upgrade of the muon system of the CMS experiment

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    The CMS Collaboration is evaluating GEM detectors for the upgrade of the muon system. This contribution will focus on the R&D performed on chambers design features and will discuss the performance of the upgraded detector

    Charged particle detection performance of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for the upgrade of CMS endcap muon system at the CERN LHC

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    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is one of the two general-purpose detectors at the CERN LHC. LHC will provide exceptional high instantaneous and integrated luminosity after second long shutdown. The forward region |η| ≥ 1:5 of CMS detector will face extremely high particle rates in tens of kHz/cm2 and hence it will affect the momentum resolution, efficiency and longevity of the muon detectors. Here, η is pseudorapidity defined as η = -ln(tan(θ/2)), where θ is the polar angle measured from z-axis. To overcome these issues the CMSGEM collaboration has proposed to install new large size rate capable Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors in the forward region of CMS muon system. The first set of Triple GEM detectors will be installed in the GE1/1 region (1:6 <; |η| <; 2.2) of the muon endcap during the long shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC. Towards this goal, full size CMS Triple GEM detectors have been fabricated and tested at the CERN SPS, H2 and H4 test beam facility. The GEM detectors were operated with two gas mixtures: Ar/CO2 (70/30) and Ar/CO2/CF4 (45/15/40). In 2014, good quality data was collected during test beam campaigns. In this paper, the performance of the detectors is summarized based on their tracking efficiency and time resolution

    Design of a constant fraction discriminator for the VFAT3 front-end ASIC of the CMS GEM detector

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    In this work the design of a constant fraction discriminator (CFD) to be used in the VFAT3 chip for the read-out of the triple-GEM detectors of the CMS experiment, is described. A prototype chip containing 8 CFDs was implemented using 130 nm CMOS technology and test results are shown. © CERN 2016

    Quality control for the first large areas of triple-GEM chambers for the CMS endcaps

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    The CMS Collaboration plans to equip the very forward muon system with triple-GEM detectors that can withstand the environment of the High-Luminosity LHC.This project is at the final stages of R&D and moving to production. A large area of several 100 m 2 are to be instrumented with GEM detectors which will be produced in six different sites around the world. A common construction and quality control procedure is required to ensure the performance of each detector.The quality control steps will include optical inspection,cleaning and baking of all materials and parts used to build the detector,leakage current tests of the GEM foils,high voltage tests,gas leak tests of the chambers and monitoring pressures time,gain calibration to know the optimal operation region of the detector,gain uniformity tests, and studying the efficiency,noise and tracking performance of the detectors in a cosmic stand using scintillator

    B Physics at the Tevatron: Run II and Beyond

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    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the prospects for B physics at the Tevatron. The work was carried out during a series of workshops starting in September 1999. There were four working groups: 1) CP Violation, 2) Rare and Semileptonic Decays, 3) Mixing and Lifetimes, 4) Production, Fragmentation and Spectroscopy. The report also includes introductory chapters on theoretical and experimental tools emphasizing aspects of B physics specific to hadron colliders, as well as overviews of the CDF, D0, and BTeV detectors, and a Summary.Comment: 583 pages. Further information on the workshops, including transparencies, can be found at the workshop's homepage: http://www-theory.lbl.gov/Brun2/. The report is also available in 2-up http://www-theory.lbl.gov/Brun2/report/report2.ps.gz or chapter-by-chapter http://www-theory.lbl.gov/Brun2/report
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