47,054 research outputs found

    Interacting Dirac fermions under spatially alternating pseudo-magnetic field: Realization of spontaneous quantum Hall effect

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    Both topological crystalline insulators surfaces and graphene host multi-valley massless Dirac fermions which are not pinned to a high-symmetry point of the Brillouin zone. Strain couples to the low-energy electrons as a time-reversal invariant gauge field, leading to the formation of pseudo-Landau levels (PLL). Here we study periodic pseudo-magnetic fields originating from strain superlattices. We study the low-energy Dirac PLL spectrum induced by the strain superlattice and analyze the effect of various polarized states. Through self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations we establish that, due to the strain superlattice and PLL electronic structure, a valley-ordered state spontaneously breaking time-reversal and realizing a quantum Hall phase is favored, while others are suppressed.Comment: 13 pages + 2 appendices, 9 figure

    Odd-parity superconductors with two-component order parameters: nematic and chiral, full gap and Majorana node

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    Motivated by the recent experiment indicating that superconductivity in the doped topological insulator Cux_xBi2_2Se3_3 has an odd-parity pairing symmetry with rotational symmetry breaking, we study the general class of odd-parity superconductors with two-component order parameters in trigonal and hexagonal crystal systems. In the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction, we find two possible superconducting phases below TcT_c, a time-reversal-breaking (i.e., chiral) phase and an anisotropic (i.e., nematic) phase, and determine their relative energetics from the gap function in momentum space. The nematic superconductor generally has a full quasi-particle gap, whereas the chiral superconductor with a three-dimensional (3D) Fermi surface has point nodes with lifted spin degeneracy, resulting in itinerant Majorana fermions in the bulk and topological Majorana arcs on the surface.Comment: 4+ pages, 2 figures; 20 pages suppl mat + 4 figures; published versio

    Three-Dimensional Majorana Fermions in Chiral Superconductors

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    Through a systematic symmetry and topology analysis we establish that three-dimensional chiral superconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling and odd-parity pairing generically host low-energy nodal quasiparticles that are spin-non-degenerate and realize Majorana fermions in three dimensions. By examining all types of chiral Cooper pairs with total angular momentum JJ formed by Bloch electrons with angular momentum jj in crystals, we obtain a comprehensive classification of gapless Majorana quasiparticles in terms of energy-momentum relation and location on the Fermi surface. We show that the existence of bulk Majorana fermions in the vicinity of spin-selective point nodes is rooted in the non-unitary nature of chiral pairing in spin-orbit-coupled superconductors. We address experimental signatures of Majorana fermions, and find that the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin relaxation rate is significantly suppressed for nuclear spins polarized along the nodal direction as a consequence of the spin-selective Majorana nature of nodal quasiparticles. Furthermore, Majorana nodes in the bulk have nontrivial topology and imply the presence of Majorana bound states on the surface that form arcs in momentum space. We conclude by proposing the heavy fermion superconductor PrOs4_4Sb12_{12} and related materials as promising candidates for non-unitary chiral superconductors hosting three-dimensional Majorana fermions.Comment: 12 pages, 3 figures + appendices; published versio

    Volume integrals associated with the inhomegeneous Helmholtz equation. Part 2: Cylindrical region; rectangular region

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    Results are presented for volume integrals associated with the Helmholtz operator, nabla(2) + alpha(2), for the cases of a finite cylindrical region and a region of rectangular parallelepiped. By using appropriate Taylor series expansions and multinomial theorem, these volume integrals are obtained in series form for regions r r' and r 4', where r and r' are distances from the origin to the point of observation and source, respectively. When the wave number approaches zero, the results reduce directly to the potentials of variable densities

    Ising-like transitions in the O(nn) loop model on the square lattice

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    We explore the phase diagram of the O(nn) loop model on the square lattice in the (x,n)(x,n) plane, where xx is the weight of a lattice edge covered by a loop. These results are based on transfer-matrix calculations and finite-size scaling. We express the correlation length associated with the staggered loop density in the transfer-matrix eigenvalues. The finite-size data for this correlation length, combined with the scaling formula, reveal the location of critical lines in the diagram. For n>>2n>>2 we find Ising-like phase transitions associated with the onset of a checkerboard-like ordering of the elementary loops, i.e., the smallest possible loops, with the size of an elementary face, which cover precisely one half of the faces of the square lattice at the maximum loop density. In this respect, the ordered state resembles that of the hard-square lattice gas with nearest-neighbor exclusion, and the finiteness of nn represents a softening of its particle-particle potentials. We also determine critical points in the range 2n2-2\leq n\leq 2. It is found that the topology of the phase diagram depends on the set of allowed vertices of the loop model. Depending on the choice of this set, the n>2n>2 transition may continue into the dense phase of the n2n \leq 2 loop model, or continue as a line of n2n \leq 2 O(nn) multicritical points

    Special transitions in an O(nn) loop model with an Ising-like constraint

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    We investigate the O(nn) nonintersecting loop model on the square lattice under the constraint that the loops consist of ninety-degree bends only. The model is governed by the loop weight nn, a weight xx for each vertex of the lattice visited once by a loop, and a weight zz for each vertex visited twice by a loop. We explore the (x,z)(x,z) phase diagram for some values of nn. For 0<n<10<n<1, the diagram has the same topology as the generic O(nn) phase diagram with n<2n<2, with a first-order line when zz starts to dominate, and an O(nn)-like transition when xx starts to dominate. Both lines meet in an exactly solved higher critical point. For n>1n>1, the O(nn)-like transition line appears to be absent. Thus, for z=0z=0, the (n,x)(n,x) phase diagram displays a line of phase transitions for n1n\le 1. The line ends at n=1n=1 in an infinite-order transition. We determine the conformal anomaly and the critical exponents along this line. These results agree accurately with a recent proposal for the universal classification of this type of model, at least in most of the range 1n1-1 \leq n \leq 1. We also determine the exponent describing crossover to the generic O(nn) universality class, by introducing topological defects associated with the introduction of `straight' vertices violating the ninety-degree-bend rule. These results are obtained by means of transfer-matrix calculations and finite-size scaling.Comment: 19 pages, 11 figure