4,922 research outputs found

    Superwind-driven Intense H2_2 Emission in NGC 6240 II: Detailed Comparison of Kinematical and Morphological Structures of the Warm and Cold Molecular Gas

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    We report on our new analysis of the spatial and kinematical distribution of warm and cold molecular gas in NGC 6240, which was undertaken to explore the origin of its unusually luminous H2_2 emission. By comparing three-dimensional emission-line data (in space and velocity) of CO (J=2-1) in the radio and H2_2 in the near infrared, we are able to study the H2_2 emitting efficiency, defined in terms of the intensity ratio of H2_2 to CO [II(H2_2)/II(CO)], as a function of velocity. The integrated H2_2 emitting efficiency is calculated by integrating the velocity profile of H2_2 emitting efficiency in blue, red, and total (blue + red) velocity regions of the profile. We find that (1) both the total H2_2 emitting efficiency and the blue-to-red ratio of the efficiency are larger in regions surrounding the CO and H2_2 intensity peaks, and (2) the H2_2 emitting efficiency and the kinematical conditions in the warm molecular gas are closely related to each other. A collision between the molecular gas concentration and the external superwind outflow from the southern nucleus seems plausible to explain these characteristics, since it can reproduce the enhanced emitting efficiency of blueshifted H2_2 around the molecular gas concentration, if we assume that the superwind blows from the southern nucleus toward us, hitting the entire gas concentration from behind. In this model, internal cloud-cloud collisions within the molecular gas concentration are enhanced by the interaction with the superwind outflow, and efficient and intense shock-excited H2_2 emission is expected as a result of the cloud-crushing mechanism.Comment: 12 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in A

    About the morphology of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and their dark matter content

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    The morphological properties of the Carina, Sculptor and Fornax dwarfs are investigated using new wide field data with a total area of 29 square degrees. The stellar density maps are derived, hinting that Sculptor possesses tidal tails indicating interaction with the Milky Way. Contrary to previous studies we cannot find any sign of breaks in the density profiles for the Carina and Fornax dwarfs. The possible existence of tidal tails in Sculptor and of King limiting radii in Fornax and Carina are used to derive global M/L ratios, without using kinematic data. By matching those M/L ratios to kinematically derived values we are able to constrain the orbital parameters of the three dwarfs. Fornax cannot have M/L smaller than 3 and must be close to its perigalacticon now. The other extreme is Sculptor that needs to be on an orbit with an eccentricity bigger than 0.5 to be able to form tidal tails despite its kinematic M/L.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figures, accepted by A&

    Determination of complex dielectric functions of ion implanted and implanted‐annealed amorphous silicon by spectroscopic ellipsometry

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    Measuring with a spectroscopic ellipsometer (SE) in the 1.8–4.5 eV photon energy region we determined the complex dielectric function (ϵ = ϵ1 + iϵ2) of different kinds of amorphous silicon prepared by self‐implantation and thermal relaxation (500 °C, 3 h). These measurements show that the complex dielectric function (and thus the complex refractive index) of implanted a‐Si (i‐a‐Si) differs from that of relaxed (annealed) a‐Si (r‐a‐Si). Moreover, its ϵ differs from the ϵ of evaporated a‐Si (e‐a‐Si) found in the handbooks as ϵ for a‐Si. If we use this ϵ to evaluate SE measurements of ion implanted silicon then the fit is very poor. We deduced the optical band gap of these materials using the Davis–Mott plot based on the relation: (ϵ2E2)1/3 ∼ (E− Eg). The results are: 0.85 eV (i‐a‐Si), 1.12 eV (e‐a‐Si), 1.30 eV (r‐a‐Si). We attribute the optical change to annihilation of point defects

    Kinetic Enhancement of Raman Backscatter, and Electron Acoustic Thomson Scatter

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    1-D Eulerian Vlasov-Maxwell simulations are presented which show kinetic enhancement of stimulated Raman backscatter (SRBS) due to electron trapping in regimes of heavy linear Landau damping. The conventional Raman Langmuir wave is transformed into a set of beam acoustic modes [L. Yin et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 025401 (2006)]. For the first time, a low phase velocity electron acoustic wave (EAW) is seen developing from the self-consistent Raman physics. Backscatter of the pump laser off the EAW fluctuations is reported and referred to as electron acoustic Thomson scatter. This light is similar in wavelength to, although much lower in amplitude than, the reflected light between the pump and SRBS wavelengths observed in single hot spot experiments, and previously interpreted as stimulated electron acoustic scatter [D. S. Montgomery et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 155001 (2001)]. The EAW is strongest well below the phase-matched frequency for electron acoustic scatter, and therefore the EAW is not produced by it. The beating of different beam acoustic modes is proposed as the EAW excitation mechanism, and is called beam acoustic decay. Supporting evidence for this process, including bispectral analysis, is presented. The linear electrostatic modes, found by projecting the numerical distribution function onto a Gauss-Hermite basis, include beam acoustic modes (some of which are unstable even without parametric coupling to light waves) and a strongly-damped EAW similar to the observed one. This linear EAW results from non-Maxwellian features in the electron distribution, rather than nonlinearity due to electron trapping.Comment: 15 pages, 16 figures, accepted in Physics of Plasmas (2006

    Stellar Dynamics and the implications on the merger evolution in NGC6240

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    We report near-infrared integral field spectroscopy of the luminous merging galaxy NGC 6240. Stellar velocities show that the two K-band peaks separated by 1.6arcsec are the central parts of inclined, rotating disk galaxies with equal mass bulges. The dynamical masses of the nuclei are much larger than the stellar mass derived from the K-band light, implying that the progenitor galaxies were galaxies with massive bulges. The K-band light is dominated by red supergiants formed in the two nuclei in starbursts, triggered ~2x10^7 years ago, possibly by the most recent perigalactic approach. Strong feedback effects of a superwind and supernovae are responsible for a short duration burst (~5x10^6 years) which is already decaying. The two galaxies form a prograde-retrograde rotating system and from the stellar velocity field it seems that one of the two interacting galaxies is subject to a prograde encounter. Between the stellar nuclei is a prominent peak of molecular gas (H_2, CO). The stellar velocity dispersion peaks there indicating that the gas has formed a local, self-gravitating concentration decoupled from the stellar gravitational potential. NGC 6240 has previously been reported to fit the paradigm of an elliptical galaxy formed through the merger of two galaxies. This was based on the near-infrared light distribution which follows a r^1/4-law. Our data cast strong doubt on this conclusion: the system is by far not relaxed, rotation plays an important role, as does self-gravitating gas, and the near-infrared light is dominated by young stars.Comment: 34 pages, 11 figures, using AASTEX 5.0rc3.1, paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, revised versio

    The Structure of Active Merger Remnant NGC 6240 from IRAC Observations

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    NGC 6240 is a rare object in the local universe: an active merger remnant viewed at the point of merging where two active galactic nuclei are visible. We present IRAC data of this object, providing high sensitivity maps of the stellar and PAH distribution in this complicated system. We use photometry to analyze the variation in these distributions with radius and provide an SED in the four IRAC bands: 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns and 8.0 microns. We fit the radial profiles of the 3.6 micron band to r^.25 and exponential profiles to evaluate the structure of the remnant. Finally, we compare the IRAC images with multi-wavelength data and examine how outflows in the X-ray, Halpha and CO correlate with 8 micron emission. The results support the general picture of NGC 6240 as a system experiencing a major merger and transitioning from a disk galaxy to a spheroid. The sensitivity of IRAC to low surface brightness mid-infrared features provides detailed information on the extended distributions of stars and dust in this rare system.Comment: Accepted for publication in Ap

    Nonlocal spectral properties of disordered alloys

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    A general method is proposed for calculating a fully k-dependent, continuous, and causal spectral function A(k,E) within the recently introduced nonlocal version of the coherent-potential approximation (NLCPA). The method involves the combination of both periodic and anti-periodic solutions to the associated cluster problem and also leads to correct bulk quantities for small cluster sizes. We illustrate the method by investigating the Fermi surface of a two-dimensional alloy. Dramatically, we find a smeared electronic topological transition not predicted by the conventional CPA.Comment: 17 pages, 5 figures, Submitted to: J. Phys.: Condens. Matter Editorial receipt 25 May 200
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