92 research outputs found

    ВЛИЯНИЕ РАСХОДА СЖАТОГО ВОЗДУХА НА УРОВНИ ПОТЕРЬ ЭНЕРГИИ В РАЗЛИЧНыХ ЭЛЕМЕНТАХ ЭЛЕКТРОТЕХНИЧЕСКОГО КОМПЛЕКСА

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    Розглянуто питання впливу витрати стислого повітря на рівні втрат енергії в різних елементах елект- ротехнічного комплексу. Рассмотрен вопрос влияния расхода сжатого воздуха на уровни потерь энергии в различных элементах электротехнического комплекса

    Insulin Resistance Is Associated with Reduced Food Odor Sensitivity across a Wide Range of Body Weights

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    The worldwide obesity epidemic is a major health problem driven by the modern food environment. Recently, it has been shown that smell perception plays a key role in eating behavior and is altered in obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not well understood yet. Since the olfactory system is closely linked to the endocrine system, we hypothesized that hormonal shifts in obesity might explain this relationship. In a within-subject, repeated-measures design, we investigated sensitivity to a food and a non-food odor in the hungry and sated state in 75 young healthy (26 normal weight, 25 overweight, and 24 obese) participants (37 women). To determine metabolic health status and hormonal reactivity in response to food intake, we assessed pre- and postprandial levels of insulin, leptin, glucose, and ghrelin. Odor sensitivity did not directly depend on body weight status/body mass index (BMI) or hunger state. However, we could establish a strong negative mediating effect of insulin resistance on the relationship between BMI/waist-hip ratio and olfactory sensitivity for the food odor. These findings indicate an impact of metabolic health status on sensitivity to food odors. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms behind altered smell perception in obesity.Peer reviewe

    Odor Sensitivity After Intranasal Insulin Application Is Modulated by Gender

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    Obesity constitutes a global health care problem, and often eating habits are to blame. For intervention, a thorough understanding of energy intake and expenditure is needed. In recent years, the pivotal role of insulin in connection to energy intake was established. Olfactory sensitivity may be a target of cerebral insulin action to maintain body weight. With this experiment, we aimed to explore the influence of intranasal insulin on olfactory sensitivity for the odors n-butanol and peanut in a placebo-controlled, double-blind setting in a within-subject design. All subjects participated in two experimental sessions on separate days and received either intranasal insulin or placebo in a pseudorandomized order. Application was followed by two olfactory threshold tests for n-butanol and peanut in a pseudorandomized order. After a single dose of intranasal insulin (40 IU) or placebo (0.4 ml), olfactory sensitivity for the odorants n-butanol and peanut were examined in 30 healthy normosmic participants (14 females). Measured blood parameters revealed no decrease in plasma glucose, however, insulin, leptin and cortisol levels were affected following intranasal application. Females' but not males' olfactory sensitivity for n-butanol was lower after intranasal insulin administration vs. placebo. In contrast, olfactory sensitivity for peanut was not influenced by intranasal insulin application. Our results indicate that the effects of cortical insulin levels on processing of specific odors is likely modulated by gender, as central increase of insulin concentration led to a reduced olfactory sensitivity for n-butanol in women only, which might be due to differentially regulated insulin and leptin signaling in men and women

    Study of the Influence of Reference System in Surface Finishing Parameters Evaluation.

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    In the present paper the influence of the reference system with regard to the characterization of the surface finishing is analyzed. The effect of the reference system’s choice on the most representative surface finishing parameters (e.g. roughness average Ra and root mean square values Rq) is studied. The study can also be applied to their equivalent parameters in waviness and primary profiles. Based on ISO and ASME standards, three different types of regression lines (central, mean and orthogonal) are theoretically and experimentally analyzed, identifying the validity and applicability fields of each one depending on profile’s geometry. El presente trabajo realiza un estudio de la influencia que supone la elección del sistema de referencia en la determinación los valores de los parámetros más relevantes empleados en la caracterización del acabado superficial tales como la rugosidad media aritmética Ra o la rugosidad media cuadrática Rq y sus equivalentes en los perfiles de ondulación y completo. Partiendo de la definición establecida por las normas ISO y ASME, se analizan tres tipos de líneas de regresión cuadrática (línea central, línea media y línea ortogonal), delimitando los campos de validez y de aplicación de cada una de ellas en función de la geometría del perfil. Para ello se plantean diversos tipos de perfiles y se desarrolla un estudio teórico y experimental de los mismos

    Past, Present, and Future of Human Chemical Communication Research

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    Although chemical signaling is an essential mode of communication in most vertebrates, it has long been viewed as having negligible effects in humans. However, a growing body of evidence shows that the sense of smell affects human behavior in social contexts ranging from affiliation and parenting to disease avoidance and social threat. This article aims to (a) introduce research on human chemical communication in the historical context of the behavioral sciences; (b) provide a balanced overview of recent advances that describe individual differences in the emission of semiochemicals and the neural mechanisms underpinning their perception, that together demonstrate communicative function; and (c) propose directions for future research toward unraveling the molecular principles involved and understanding the variability in the generation, transmission, and reception of chemical signals in increasingly ecologically valid conditions. Achieving these goals will enable us to address some important societal challenges but are within reach only with the aid of genuinely interdisciplinary approaches

    Recent smell loss is the best predictor of COVID-19 among individuals with recent respiratory symptoms

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    In a preregistered, cross-sectional study we investigated whether olfactory loss is a reliable predictor of COVID-19 using a crowdsourced questionnaire in 23 languages to assess symptoms in individuals self-reporting recent respiratory illness. We quantified changes in chemosensory abilities during the course of the respiratory illness using 0-100 visual analog scales (VAS) for participants reporting a positive (C19+; n=4148) or negative (C19-; n=546) COVID-19 laboratory test outcome. Logistic regression models identified univariate and multivariate predictors of COVID-19 status and post-COVID-19 olfactory recovery. Both C19+ and C19- groups exhibited smell loss, but it was significantly larger in C19+ participants (mean±SD, C19+: -82.5±27.2 points; C19-: -59.8±37.7). Smell loss during illness was the best predictor of COVID-19 in both univariate and multivariate models (ROC AUC=0.72). Additional variables provide negligible model improvement. VAS ratings of smell loss were more predictive than binary chemosensory yes/no-questions or other cardinal symptoms (e.g., fever). Olfactory recovery within 40 days of respiratory symptom onset was reported for ~50% of participants and was best predicted by time since respiratory symptom onset. We find that quantified smell loss is the best predictor of COVID-19 amongst those with symptoms of respiratory illness. To aid clinicians and contact tracers in identifying individuals with a high likelihood of having COVID-19, we propose a novel 0-10 scale to screen for recent olfactory loss, the ODoR-19. We find that numeric ratings ≤2 indicate high odds of symptomatic COVID-19 (4<10). Once independently validated, this tool could be deployed when viral lab tests are impractical or unavailable

    More Than Smell—COVID-19 Is Associated With Severe Impairment of Smell, Taste, and Chemesthesis

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    Correction: Chemical Senses, Volume 46, 2021, bjab050, https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjab050 Published: 08 December 2021Recent anecdotal and scientific reports have provided evidence of a link between COVID-19 and chemosensory impairments, such as anosmia. However, these reports have downplayed or failed to distinguish potential effects on taste, ignored chemesthesis, and generally lacked quantitative measurements. Here, we report the development, implementation, and initial results of a multilingual, international questionnaire to assess self-reported quantity and quality of perception in 3 distinct chemosensory modalities (smell, taste, and chemesthesis) before and during COVID-19. In the first 11 days after questionnaire launch, 4039 participants (2913 women, 1118 men, and 8 others, aged 19-79) reported a COVID-19 diagnosis either via laboratory tests or clinical assessment. Importantly, smell, taste, and chemesthetic function were each significantly reduced compared to their status before the disease. Difference scores (maximum possible change +/- 100) revealed a mean reduction of smell (-79.7 +/- 28.7, mean +/- standard deviation), taste (-69.0 +/- 32.6), and chemesthetic (-37.3 +/- 36.2) function during COVID-19. Qualitative changes in olfactory ability (parosmia and phantosmia) were relatively rare and correlated with smell loss. Importantly, perceived nasal obstruction did not account for smell loss. Furthermore, chemosensory impairments were similar between participants in the laboratory test and clinical assessment groups. These results show that COVID-19-associated chemosensory impairment is not limited to smell but also affects taste and chemesthesis.The multimodal impact of COVID-19 and the lack of perceived nasal obstruction suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus strain 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may disrupt sensory-neural mechanisms.Peer reviewe

    Chemosensory danger detection in the human brain

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    Chemosensory danger detection in the human brain

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    Ein Prosit auf den Trigeminus!

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