2,176 research outputs found

    Desmozoon lepeophtherii n. gen., n. sp., (Microsporidia: Enterocytozoonidae) infecting the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>A microsporidian was previously reported to infect the crustacean parasite, <it>Lepeophtheirus salmonis </it>(Krøyer, 1837) (Copepoda, Caligidae), on farmed Atlantic salmon (<it>Salmo salar </it>L.) in Scotland. The microsporidian was shown to be a novel species with a molecular phylogenetic relationship to <it>Nucleospora </it>(Enterocytozoonidae), but the original report did not assign it to a genus or species. Further studies examined the development of the microsporidian in <it>L. salmonis </it>using electron microscopy and re-evaluated the molecular findings using new sequence data available for the group. Here we report a full description for the microsporidian and assign it to a new genus and species.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The microsporidian infects subcuticular cells that lie on the innermost region of the epidermal tissue layer beneath the cuticle and along the internal haemocoelic divisions. The mature spores are sub-spherical with a single nucleus and an isofilar polar filament with 5-8 turns in a double coil. The entire development is in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm and is polysporous. During early merogony, a diplokaryotic nuclear arrangement exists which is absent throughout the rest of the developmental cycle. Large merogonial plasmodia form which divide to form single uninucleate sporonts. Sporogonial plasmodia were not observed; instead, binucleate sporonts divide to form two sporoblasts. Prior to final division, there is a precocious development of the polar filament extrusion apparatus which is associated with large electron lucent inclusions (ELIs). Analyses of DNA sequences reveal that the microsporidian is robustly supported in a clade with other members of the Enterocytozoonidae and confirms a close phylogenetic relationship with <it>Nucleospora</it>.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The ultrastructural findings of the precocious development of the polar filament and the presence of ELIs are consistent with those of the Enterocytozoonidae. However, the confirmed presence of an early diplokaryotic stage and a merogonial plasmodium that divides to yield uninucleate sporonts instead of transforming into a sporogonial syncitium, are features not currently associated with the family. Yet, analyses of DNA sequence data clearly place the microsporidian within the Enterocytozoonidae. Therefore, due to the novelty of the copepod host, the ultrastructural findings and the robust nature of the phylogenetic analyses, a new genus should be created within the Enterocytozoonide; <it>Desmozoon lepeophtherii </it>n. gen. n. sp. is proposed.</p

    Editorial Introduction

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    Accessing the most lethal product on the market : community perceptions of tobacco accessibility in NSW, Australia

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    Aim: This study aims to describe the perceived ease of accessing tobacco retail outlets in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, and the sociodemographic factors associated with reported higher density of tobacco retail outlets. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted with a sample of NSW adults in February 2019. The accessibility of cigarettes was assessed and a binary logistic regression model was used to examine characteristics associated with having four or more retailers within a 5-minute drive of their home. Results: A total of 3213 NSW adults completed the survey. The vast majority of participants, 89.9% (n = 2888), described cigarettes as being easily accessed from where they live. Half of the participants (50.7%) reported having four or more tobacco retail outlets within a 5-minute drive of their home. Never-smokers were significantly less likely than daily smokers to report four or more tobacco retailers within a 5-minute drive of their home, although non-smokers may be less likely to identify tobacco retailers. Females, those living in regional areas of NSW and those with a university qualification were also less likely to report having four or more tobacco retailers within a 5-minute drive of their home. Conclusion: The ease of access to tobacco retailers in NSW is incongruent with the significant health risks associated with tobacco use and highlights the need for measures to reduce the supply of tobacco, such as a fee-based tobacco licensing system

    Original observations of Desmozoon lepeophtherii, a microsporidian hyperparasite infecting the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, and its subsequent detection by other researchers

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    A microsporidian hyperparasite, Desmozoon lepeophtherii, of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis (salmon louse), infecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), was first discovered in the west of Scotland in 2000. Heavily infected salmon lice are easily recognised as they have large opaque inclusions distributed throughout the body. The prevalence of salmon lice with visible signs of microsporidiosis can be up to 10% of the population from certain farm sites. The microsporidian was also isolated from the host Atlantic salmon suggesting it may have a two host life cycle. The authors believe that the infection in immunocompetent salmon may be latent, becoming acute during periods of infection with another pathogen or during sexual maturation. Since its first discovery in Scotland, Desmozoon lepeophtherii has been subsequently reported from Norway, and more recently from the Pacific coast of North America

    On the Use of Cloud Computing for Scientific Workflows

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    This paper explores the use of cloud computing for scientific workflows, focusing on a widely used astronomy application-Montage. The approach is to evaluate from the point of view of a scientific workflow the tradeoffs between running in a local environment, if such is available, and running in a virtual environment via remote, wide-area network resource access. Our results show that for Montage, a workflow with short job runtimes, the virtual environment can provide good compute time performance but it can suffer from resource scheduling delays and wide-area communications

    The Accuracy of Blood Pressure Measurement by Two Cuff-Less Wearable and Portable Health Devices

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    Introduction: Wearable and portable devices that claim to measure blood pressure without the need of a cuff are becoming increasingly popular among consumers. Given that hypertension is the leading cause for cardiovascular mortality worldwide, a portable technology that allows consumers to easily measure their BP several times a day would be of great value. However, the convenience that portable health technology provides is useless, and even dangerous, if the measurements are inaccurate. Objective: Investigate the accuracy of two popular commercial cuff-less BP device, the Bodimetrics Performance Monitor and Everlast TR10 watch. Methods: A sample of 127 ambulatory patients (\u3e18y) were recruited from the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital Preadmission Testing Center. Following the 2013 ANSI/AAMI/ISO standard protocol for evaluating non-invasive automated sphygmomanometers, four reference and three investigational BP measurements were obtained after a five minute initial rest period. Reference measurements were taken with the validated Cardiocap 5 sphygmomanometer. Results: 85 subjects met inclusion criteria. The average absolute differences (SD) between the Everlast watch and reference were 22.7 (27.4) mmHg for SBP and 6.9 (6.2) mmHg for DBP. The average absolute difference (SD) between the BodiMetrics Performance Monitor and the reference was 5.3 (4.7) mmHg for systolic BP. Discussion: The Everlast fitness watch tested is not accurate enough to be used as BP measurement device. The Bodimetrics device was more accurate, likely due to calibration immediately prior to validation, but even with this advantage the BP device failed to meet accuracy guidelines. Widespread use of this technology likely results in the misclassification of patients’ BP status

    The Accuracy of Blood Pressure Measurement by a Smartwatch and a Portable Health Device

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    Introduction: Hypertension is a leading cause of mortality. Proper blood pressure (BP) control can be achieved by lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy, and frequent measurements. With the growing popularity of cuffless blood pressure monitors, it is important to independently validate their accuracy. Objective: We evaluated two cuffless blood pressure monitors, The Everlast TR10 fitness watch and the BodiMetrics Performance Monitor, for their accuracy and precision in BP measurements. Methods: Using a protocol derived from the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 2013 standard for evaluating automated sphygmomanometers, we measured the blood pressures of 85 patients recruited from the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital Preadmission Testing Center with two experimental devices and a validated automated sphygmomanometer cuff. We compared the mean absolute differences in measurements between the investigational and reference devices. Comparisons were analyzed with Spearman correlation and T-test, p\u3c0.05. Results: The BodiMetrics Performance Monitor SBP measurements correlated well with the reference SBP measurements (ρ = 0.88, P \u3c 0.01), whereas the Everlast TR10 fitness watch did not (SBP: ρ = -0.19, P \u3c 0.01; DBP: ρ = -0.01, P \u3c 0.01). The BodiMetrics performance monitor reported a hypertensive BP (≥140 mm Hg) for 80% of the hypertensive reference SBP measurements, whereas the Everlast watch measured no hypertensive BP values for any of the hypertensive reference SBP or DBP measurements. Discussion: The Everlast fitness watch and BodiMetrics Performance Monitor are not accurate enough to use for blood pressure monitoring. Use of these devices will likely result in misclassifying patients with hypertension as normotensive, which is a public health concern

    The Effectiveness of Serial Casting in Children with Arthrogryposis

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    The most common foot deformity in children with arthrogryposis is clubfoot, which is typically stiffer than in the idiopathic clubfoot (IC). While the use of the Ponseti method in IC has led to improved foot mobility and reduced invasive surgical procedures, there is currently limited information of the effectiveness of serial casting (SC) in arthrogryposis. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of serial casting in recurrent clubfoot in children with arthrogryposis on brace tolerance, foot position, patient reported outcome, and the need for surgery
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