36 research outputs found

    Engaging High-Ability Students in Literacy: A University and Elementary School Transformational Partnership

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    The purpose of this qualitative research was to examine how a service learning literacy course impacted preservice teacher perceptions of intermediate-aged high-ability children in a mid-high poverty school, and how the educators in the partnering school viewed the experience. Pre- and post-experience responses from preservice teachers and open-ended survey responses from participating educators at the partnering school helped evaluate service learning and measure the impact of the partnership. Results indicated that, after the service learning program, preservice teachers better understood both the developmental literacy needs of intermediate students as well as how to lead a novel study while challenging and mentoring gifted students. Using engaging, diverse books with strong themes and rich vocabulary, the school received formerly lacking literacy curriculum and instruction for gifted children that seemed to contribute to improved student test scores and building a school community of readers. Connections between the university and school were established through email, texts, face-to-face interactions, and Google Docs. This led to a university and school partnership that was mutually beneficial because the program planning was intentional, developed by leaders of both entities, and continually assessed

    Preservice Teacher Perceptions of Coding in Literacy Instruction

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    Coding is a language with many similarities to what is traditionally thought of as literacy. Preservice teachers are familiar with literacy instruction, but were not exposed to computer science during their K-12 education nor in their teacher education course work. Yet, they are responsible for preparing children for future careers, including the growing field of computer science, which should be integrated as early as possible into the general education curriculum to build awareness, interest, and ultimately, skills. In this study, preservice teachers in a K-6 reading interventions class were trained in Scratch and provided a template to use with children struggling in various aspects of literacy. This article examines how preservice teachers perceive the relationship between coding and literacy through the theoretical framework of gaming, and whether they would include coding in literacy instruction. Results indicate preservice teachers do not feel confident enough in their teaching abilities to feel comfortable integrating coding into literacy instruction. Lack of prior knowledge and time constraints contributed to those that chose not to participate. Success occurred as Scratch was found to be motivating and individualized when using self-selected pictures and voice to connect to the written word, supporting children’s literacy learning

    Genome-Wide Interactions with Dairy Intake for Body Mass Index in Adults of European Descent

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    Scope: Body weight responds variably to the intake of dairy foods. Genetic variation may contribute to inter‐individual variability in associations between body weight and dairy consumption. Methods and results: A genome‐wide interaction study to discover genetic variants that account for variation in BMI in the context of low‐fat, high‐fat and total dairy intake in cross‐sectional analysis was conducted. Data from nine discovery studies (up to 25 513 European descent individuals) were meta‐analyzed. Twenty‐six genetic variants reached the selected significance threshold (p‐interaction \u3c10−7), and six independent variants (LINC01512‐rs7751666, PALM2/AKAP2‐rs914359, ACTA2‐rs1388, PPP1R12A‐rs7961195, LINC00333‐rs9635058, AC098847.1‐rs1791355) were evaluated meta‐analytically for replication of interaction in up to 17 675 individuals. Variant rs9635058 (128 kb 3’ of LINC00333) was replicated (p‐interaction = 0.004). In the discovery cohorts, rs9635058 interacted with dairy (p‐interaction = 7.36 × 10−8) such that each serving of low‐fat dairy was associated with 0.225 kg m−2 lower BMI per each additional copy of the effect allele (A). A second genetic variant (ACTA2‐rs1388) approached interaction replication significance for low‐fat dairy exposure. Conclusion: Body weight responses to dairy intake may be modified by genotype, in that greater dairy intake may protect a genetic subgroup from higher body weight

    Active Nuclear Receptors Exhibit Highly Correlated AF-2 Domain Motions

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    Nuclear receptor ligand binding domains (LBDs) convert ligand binding events into changes in gene expression by recruiting transcriptional coregulators to a conserved activation function-2 (AF-2) surface. While most nuclear receptor LBDs form homo- or heterodimers, the human nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) forms a unique and essential homodimer and is proposed to assemble into a functional heterotetramer with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). How the homodimer interface, which is located 30 Å from the AF-2, would affect function at this critical surface has remained unclear. By using 20- to 30-ns molecular dynamics simulations on PXR in various oligomerization states, we observed a remarkably high degree of correlated motion in the PXR–RXR heterotetramer, most notably in the four helices that create the AF-2 domain. The function of such correlation may be to create “active-capable” receptor complexes that are ready to bind to transcriptional coactivators. Indeed, we found in additional simulations that active-capable receptor complexes involving other orphan or steroid nuclear receptors also exhibit highly correlated AF-2 domain motions. We further propose a mechanism for the transmission of long-range motions through the nuclear receptor LBD to the AF-2 surface. Taken together, our findings indicate that long-range motions within the LBD scaffold are critical to nuclear receptor function by promoting a mobile AF-2 state ready to bind coactivators

    Meta-analysis across Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium provides evidence for an association of serum vitamin D with pulmonary function

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    The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)-pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D-pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (SD 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (SD 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1.1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0.9, 1.3; P< 0.0001) and 1.8 ml (95 % CI 1.1, 2.5; P< 0.0001) in AA (P-race (difference) = 0.06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1.3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1.0, 1.6; P <0.0001) and 1.5 ml (95 % CI 0.8, 2.3; P= 0.0001) in AA (P-race difference = 0.56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D-FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH) D, FVC was higher by 1.7 ml (95 % CI 1.1, 2.3) for current smokers and 1.7 ml (95 % CI 1.2, 2.1) for former smokers, compared with 0.8 ml (95 % CI 0.4, 1.2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations

    Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome

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    The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology, as well as rich information about human evolution. In 2001, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Since then, the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage. Here, we report the result of this finishing process. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. It covers ∼99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of ∼1 event per 100,000 bases. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. The near-complete sequence, the first for a vertebrate, greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the human genome including studies of gene number, birth and death. Notably, the human enome seems to encode only 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead

    Double-blind comparison of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder: findings from the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS) study

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    OBJECTIVE: Atypical (second-generation) antipsychotics are considered standard treatment for children and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. However, the superiority of second-generation antipsychotics over first-generation antipsychotics has not been demonstrated. This study compared the efficacy and safety of two second-generation antipsychotics (olanzapine and risperidone) with a first-generation antipsychotic (molindone) in the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. METHOD: This double-blind multisite trial randomly assigned pediatric patients with early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to treatment with either olanzapine (2.5-20 mg/day), risperidone (0.5-6 mg/day), or molindone (10-140 mg/day, plus 1 mg/day of benztropine) for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was response to treatment, defined as a Clinical Global Impression (CGI) improvement score of 1 or 2 and \u3eor=20% reduction in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score after 8 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: In total, 119 youth were randomly assigned to treatment. Of these subjects, 116 received at least one dose of treatment and thus were available for analysis. No significant differences were found among treatment groups in response rates (molindone: 50%; olanzapine: 34%; risperidone: 46%) or magnitude of symptom reduction. Olanzapine and risperidone were associated with significantly greater weight gain. Olanzapine showed the greatest risk of weight gain and significant increases in fasting cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, insulin, and liver transaminase levels. Molindone led to more self-reports of akathisia. CONCLUSIONS: Risperidone and olanzapine did not demonstrate superior efficacy over molindone for treating early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Adverse effects were frequent but differed among medications. The results question the nearly exclusive use of second-generation antipsychotics to treat early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. The safety findings related to weight gain and metabolic problems raise important public health concerns, given the widespread use of second-generation antipsychotics in youth for nonpsychotic disorders
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