3,234 research outputs found

    Construction of the Digital Hadron Calorimeter

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    Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) have been proposed as a method of improving the jet energy resolution of future colliding beam detectors. PFAs require calorimeters with high granularity to enable three-dimensional imaging of events. The Calorimeter for the Linear Collider Collaboration (CALICE) is developing and testing prototypes of such highly segmented calorimeters. In this context, a large prototype of a Digital Hadron Calorimeter (DHCAL) was developed and constructed by a group led by Argonne National Laboratory. The DHCAL consists of 52 layers, instrumented with Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) and interleaved with steel absorber plates. The RPCs are read out by 1 x 1 cm2 pads with a 1-bit resolution (digital readout). The DHCAL prototype has approximately 480,000 readout channels. This talk reports on the design, construction and commissioning of the DHCAL. The DHCAL was installed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility in fall 2010 and data was collected through the summer 2011

    Understanding Sex Trafficking in the United States

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    Human trafficking is a major issue in the world today, with over 40 million victims accross the globe. Human trafficking has three categories, labor trafficking, sex trafficking, and organ trafficking. The focus of my research is on sex trafficking in the united states. My goal is to understand how sex trafficking happens in the United States, in order to then better understand how to combat it. My primary goal is to be able to educate people who work in different fields where victims of sex trafficking are encountered as well as people who are part of vulnerable populations to sex trafficking. My paper is broken up into three different sections. The first section of the paper analyzes what sex trafficking is and how it happens in the US. The second section of the paper looks at what makes certain groups more vulnerable to sex trafficking, and then examines the current efforts by the US government in combatting human trafficking. The final section of the paper proposes effective strategies for combating sex trafficking within the United States

    Possible Method of Localization and Assessment of Myocardial Damage Using the Limb Lead Electrocardiogram

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    Physiological Science

    Microbiology and Epidemiology of Escherichia albertii—An Emerging Elusive Foodborne Pathogen

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    Escherichia albertii, a close relative of E. coli, is an emerging zoonotic foodborne pathogen associated with watery diarrhea mainly in children and immunocompromised individuals. E. albertii was initially classified as eae-positive Hafnia alvei, however, as more genetic and biochemical information became available it was reassigned to its current novel taxonomy. Its infections are common under conditions of poor hygiene with confirmed transmission via contaminated water and food, mainly poultry-based products. This pathogen has been isolated from various domestic and wild animals, with most isolates being derived from birds, implying that birds among other wild animals might act as its reservoir. Due to the absence of standardized isolation and identification protocols, E. albertii can be misidentified as other Enterobacteriaceae. Exploiting phenotypes such as its inability to ferment rhamnose and xylose and PCR assays targeting E. albertii-specific genes such as the cytolethal distending toxin and the DNA-binding transcriptional activator of cysteine biosynthesis encoding genes can be used to accurately identify this pathogen. Several gaps exist in our knowledge of E. albertii and need to be bridged. A deeper understanding of E. albertii epidemiology and physiology is required to allow the development of effective measures to control its transmission and infections. Overall, current data suggest that E. albertii might play a more significant role in global infectious diarrhea cases than previously assumed and is often overlooked or misidentified. Therefore, simple, and efficient diagnostic tools that cover E. albertii biodiversity are required for effective isolation and identification of this elusive agent of diarrhea

    The Effect of Using Exoskeleton of Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus) as a Dietary Calcium Source on the Egg Characteristics of Layer Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

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    The study focuses on the ability to use the exoskeleton of blue crab as alternative calcium and carotenoid supplement for layer hens and its effects on egg characteristics. Three groups of eighty layer hens each were fed a base feed formulation following the standards of the University of the Philippines Los Baños. The feeds were base feed as negative control (NG), a base feed with natural egg yolk colorants (capsorubin and lutein) as positive control (PG), and a base feed with 1% ground blue crab exoskeletons, as experimental (EG). The feeding lasted four weeks before egg collection. The eggs were weighed for their albumen, yolk, shell, and egg weight. The egg yolk color was determined using a DSM Fan and a digital Chroma meter, and the shell thickness using digital calipers. Statistical treatment was done through Kruskal Wallis test using SPSS software. Results showed that eggs of EG had significantly heavier shells with a mean of 5.93±0.11g, compared to 5.83±0.08g of the NG and 5.55±0.08g of the PG. Eggshell thickness was not significantly different among the three groups. Egg yolk color was significantly different in PG with a mean DSM gradient value of 11.96±0.11, compared to 5.92±0.14 of the NG and 6.48±0.20 of EG. Ground blue crab exoskeleton as a calcium supplement may increase the weight of the eggshells but may not intensify the egg yolk color

    Pain Coping Skills Training for Patients Who Catastrophize About Pain Prior to Knee Arthroplasty: A Multisite Randomized Clinical Trial

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    BACKGROUND: Pain catastrophizing has been identified as a prognostic indicator of poor outcome following knee arthroplasty. Interventions to address pain catastrophizing, to our knowledge, have not been tested in patients undergoing knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pain coping skills training in persons with moderate to high pain catastrophizing undergoing knee arthroplasty improves outcomes 12 months postoperatively compared with usual care or arthritis education. METHODS: A multicenter, 3-arm, single-blinded, randomized comparative effectiveness trial was performed involving 5 university-based medical centers in the United States. There were 402 randomized participants. The primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Pain Scale, measured at baseline, 2 months, 6 months, and 12 months following the surgical procedure. RESULTS: Participants were recruited from January 2013 to June 2016. In 402 participants, 66% were women and the mean age of the participants (and standard deviation) was 63.2 ± 8.0 years. Three hundred and forty-six participants (90% of those who underwent a surgical procedure) completed a 12-month follow-up. All 3 treatment groups had large improvements in 12-month WOMAC pain scores with no significant differences (p > 0.05) among the 3 treatment arms. No differences were found between WOMAC pain scores at 12 months for the pain coping skills and arthritis education groups (adjusted mean difference, 0.3 [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.9 to 1.5]) or between the pain coping and usual-care groups (adjusted mean difference, 0.4 [95% CI, -0.7 to 1.5]). Secondary outcomes also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) among the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with pain catastrophizing undergoing knee arthroplasty, cognitive behaviorally based pain coping skills training did not confer pain or functional benefit beyond the large improvements achieved with usual surgical and postoperative care. Future research should develop interventions for the approximately 20% of patients undergoing knee arthroplasty who experience persistent function-limiting pain. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence

    Fungal ecological strategies reflected in gene transcription - a case study of two litter decomposers.

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    Microbial communities interplay with their environment through their functional traits that can be a response or an effect on the environment. Here, we explore how a functional trait-the decomposition of organic matter, can be addressed based on genetic markers and how the expression of these markers reflect ecological strategies of two fungal litter decomposer Gymnopus androsaceus and Chalara longipes. We sequenced the genomes of these two fungi, as well as their transcriptomes at different steps of Pinus sylvestris needles decomposition in microcosms. Our results highlighted that if the gene content of the two species could indicate similar potential decomposition abilities, the expression levels of specific gene families belonging to the glycoside hydrolase category reflected contrasting ecological strategies. Actually, C. longipes, the weaker decomposer in this experiment, turned out to have a high content of genes involved in cell wall polysaccharides decomposition but low expression levels, reflecting a versatile ecology compare to the more competitive G. androsaceus with high expression levels of keystone functional genes. Thus, we established that sequential expression of genes coding for different components of the decomposer machinery indicated adaptation to chemical changes in the substrate as decomposition progressed

    Devotional Biology: A Young-age Creationist, College-level, Conceptual Biology Textbook

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    Devotional Biology is being developed as a one-semester college-level conceptual biology textbook for non-science majors. Except for presenting a survey of organisms and an introduction to organismal anatomy and physiology (typically reserved for a second-semester course), Devotional Biology covers all the major topics of biology presented in secular texts as well as a few others not usually covered at all. Student surveys indicate students believe they learn biology through the Devotional Biology text. At the same time, Devotional Biology presents biology from the perspective of a distinctly biblical worldview—and on surveys, Devotional Biology students believe they improved their appreciation of biology as well. Devotional Biology also focuses on God, and how His attributes are evident in the biological world—and on surveys, Devotional Biology students believe they improved their recognition of God in the creation, their understanding of God, their relationship to God, and their use of the creation in witness to others. Devotional Biology also assumes a young-age creationist interpretation of biology, critiquing the naturalistic perspective of the field in the process—and on surveys, Devotional Biology students believe they grew in their faith and learned to defend their faith. Devotional Biology also includes responsibilities of believers as priests and kings in God’s creation—and on surveys, Devotional Biology students believe they grew in their understanding of their ethical responsibilities, in their worship of God, and in better ruling over the creation