1,719 research outputs found

    Job changes and hours changes: understanding the path of labor supply adjustment

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    We use British panel data to investigate single women’s labor supply changes in response to three reforms that affected individuals’ work incentives. We use these reforms to identify changes in labor supply. There is evidence of small hours of work effects for two of such reforms. A third reform in 1999 instead led to a significant increase in single mothers’ hours of work. The mechanism by which the labor supply adjustments were made occurred largely through job changes rather than hours changes with the same employer. This is little overall effect of the reforms on wages

    Job changes, hours changes, and the path of labour supply adjustment

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    This paper uses the first twelve waves of the British Household Panel Survey covering the period 1991-2002 to investigate single women’s labour supply changes in response to three tax and benefit policy reforms that occurred in the 1990s. We find evidence of small labour supply effects for two of such reforms. A third reform in 1999 instead led to a significant increase in single mothers’ hours of work. This increase was primarily driven by women who changed job, suggesting that labour supply adjustments within a job are harder than across jobs. The presence of hours inflexibility within jobs and labour supply adjustments through job mobility are strongly confirmed when we look at hours changes by stated labour supply preferences. Finally, we find little overall effect on wages

    An Economic Model of Child Custody

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    This paper develops a model of child custody based on an incomplete-contract approach to the allocation of property rights. Because of the presence of transaction costs in marriage, altruistic parents cannot contract upon the investments they make into their children, but can reduce the resulting inefficiencies by determining ex ante the parent who would be allocated custody in case they divorce. We show that: (i) the optimal allocation of custodial rights depends on both preferences and technological factors; (ii) custodial rights can be allocated either to the parent who values the benefits from child welfare more or, vice-versa, to the parent with the lowest valuation; (iii) if one parent�s investment is significantly more important than the other parent�s investment, then sole custody is preferred to joint custody and it should be allocated to the parent whose investment is relatively more important; and (iv) if the importance of the parents� investments is sufficiently similar and if the differences in parents� valuations of child quality are large, then joint custody is optimal with the low-valuation parent receiving a relatively greater share, because the other parent would invest in the child anyway while the low-valuation parent would be endowed with greater bargaining power. The implications of these results are then interpreted in the context of current custody laws, discussed in relation to empirical estimates of some of the parameters underlying the optimal custody rule, and used to question the skepticism surrounding prenuptial contracts.

    Dating Preferences and Meeting Opportunities in Mate Choice Decisions

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    Much empirical evidence shows that female and male partners look alike along a variety of attributes. It is however unclear how this positive sorting comes about, because marriage is an equilibrium outcome arising from a process that entails searching, meeting and choosing one another. This study takes advantage of a unique data set to shed light on the forces driving choices at the earliest stage of a relationship. Both women and men value physical attributes, such as age and weight, and reveal that their dating choices are assortative along several traits. Importantly, meeting opportunities are found to have a substantial role in determining dating proposals

    Equilibrium Search and the Impact of Equal Opportunities for Women.

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    This paper develops a new equilibrium model of two-sided search where agents have multiple attributes and general payoff functions. The model can be applied to several substantive issues. Here we use it to provide a novel understanding of the separate effects of equal opportunities for women in the labor market and improved contraception on female education, employment, and timing of first births after World War II. We find that the diffusion of the pill might have played an important role in explaining the observed rise in female education and employment since the 1960s. But without equal opportunities, these changes would have not occurred

    Equilibrium Search and the Impact of Equal Opportunities for Women

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    This paper develops a new equilibrium model of two-sided search where ex-ante heterogenous individuals have general payoff functions and vectors of attributes. The analysis applies to a large class of models, from the non-transferable utility case to the collective household case with bargaining. The approach is powerful for it identifies a simple algorithm which, in the empirical application, is found to rapidly converge to equilibrium. Using indirect inference, we identify the differential effects of women's ability and charm on female match incentives. We use these results to assess the separate impacts of the arrival of equal opportunities for women in the labor market and the advent of the contraceptive pill on female economic activity and matching

    Synthesis and antibacterial effects of cobalt–cellulose magnetic nanocomposites

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    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Green synthesis is employed to prepare cobalt/cellulose nanocomposites with cubic (α-cobalt) cobalt as a main component with antibacterial and magnetic properties. An in situ reduction of aqueous solutions of cobalt ions on a model cellulose substrate surface using hydrogen gas affords spherical, cellulose-stabilised cobalt nanoclusters with magnetic properties and an average diameter of 7 nm that are distributed evenly over the surface of the cellulose fibres. These cobalt/cellulose nanocomposites exhibit good antibacterial action against opportunistic pathogens both Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli, A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa), with zones of inhibition up to 15 mm, thereby encouraging the deployment of these advanced materials for the treatment of wastewater or within medical dressings. This method of preparation is compared with the analogous in situ reduction of cobalt ions on a cellulose surface using sodium borohydride as reducing agent

    cfd optimization of cpc solar collectors

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    Abstract The use of solar energy for industrial purpose at medium-low temperature is receiving attention. As a matter of fact, this temperature range, usually between 80-200°C, requires low cost devices to convert solar energy into useful heat. In particular, the use of CPCs collectors has been suggested in literature because they can be operated without the use of a tracking system, at least within certain limits. The thermal losses of these devices are often reduced by using an evacuated pipe, but this solution increases the manufacturing costs and reduces the reliability and the optical efficiency of the receiver. A series of alternative methods for the thermal losses reduction has been proposed in this paper, for working temperature up to 200°C. Their effectiveness was evaluated by means of a previously validated CFD model. A cylindrical receiver and a concentration ratio of 2 were taken into account. The results were analyzed in terms of temperature contours and thermal efficiency. In particular, the optical efficiency was focused as a key parameter in the performances of a CPC. As conclusion, it was found that a proper arrangement of the absorber with a baffle may entail an improvement of the thermal efficiency without significantly increasing the complexity of the system

    an experimental and numerical analysis of the performances of a wankel steam expander

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    Abstract In the last decades, the energy market increased its interest towards the smart grids and electrically isolated systems. These systems utilize small size power generators in which volumetric expanders may be employed for a wide range of operative conditions, because of their robustness and reliability. In this work a study on a volumetric expander based on the Wankel mechanism was carried out. The aim of this study was to develop a lumped parameters numerical model able to predict the brake effective torque and working fluid consumption of the expander. This model was validated by comparison with experimental results obtained using steam as working fluid. This model allowed to trace the trends of mechanical and thermal losses versus rotating speed and inlet pressure. The experimental results encouraged the need for a further development of this expander, and showed the capability of the numerical model to predict the effective performances of the device
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