203 research outputs found

    Technique for Improving the Adoption of Minimally Invasive Surgery in Challenging Cases.

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    In the recent decades minimally invasive surgery has gained popularity for the management of benign and malignant disease in various settings [1–3]. Growing data underlined the safety and effective..

    Investigating the Role of Minimally Invasive Surgery in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease.

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    In the recent years, the role of minimally invasive surgery (e.g., laparoscopic or robotic assisted surgery) has emerged for the treatments of several benign and malignant conditions [1–4]. Growing..

    A randomized phase 2 study of sapanisertib in combination with paclitaxel versus paclitaxel alone in women with advanced, recurrent, or persistent endometrial cancer

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    Endometrial cancer; Metastatic; RecurrentCàncer d'endometri; Metastàtic; RecurrentCáncer endometrial; Metastásico; RecurrenteObjective This phase 2 study investigated sapanisertib (selective dual inhibitor of mTORC1/2) alone, or in combination with paclitaxel or TAK-117 (a selective small molecule inhibitor of PI3K), versus paclitaxel alone in advanced, recurrent, or persistent endometrial cancer. Methods Patients with histologic diagnosis of endometrial cancer (1–2 prior regimens) were randomized to 28-day cycles on four treatment arms: 1) weekly paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, and 15); 2) weekly paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 + oral sapanisertib 4 mg on days 2–4, 9–11, 16–18, and 23–25; 3) weekly sapanisertib 30 mg, or 4) sapanisertib 4 mg + TAK-117 200 mg on days 1–3, 8–10, 15–17, and 22–24. Results Of 241 patients randomized, 234 received treatment (paclitaxel, n = 87 [3 ongoing]; paclitaxel+sapanisertib, n = 86 [3 ongoing]; sapanisertib, n = 41; sapanisertib+TAK-117, n = 20). The sapanisertib and sapanisertib+TAK-117 arms were closed to enrollment after futility analyses. After a median follow-up of 14.4 (paclitaxel) versus 17.2 (paclitaxel+sapanisertib) months, median progression-free survival (PFS; primary endpoint) was 3.7 versus 5.6 months (hazard ratio [HR] 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58–1.15; p = 0.139); in patients with endometrioid histology (n = 116), median PFS was 3.3 versus 5.7 months (HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.43–1.03). Grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse event rates were 54.0% with paclitaxel versus 89.5% paclitaxel+sapanisertib. Conclusions Our findings support inclusion of chemotherapy combinations with investigational agents for advanced or metastatic disease. The primary endpoint was not met and toxicity was manageable. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02725268Takeda Development Center Americas, Inc., Lexington, MA, USA. This work was supported by funding from Takeda Development Center Americas, Inc. The study was designed by the authors in conjunction with the sponsors. Data were gathered and analyzed by the investigator and the sponsor; all the authors had access to the data. The authors received medical writing support for drafting the manuscript, which was funded by Takeda Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc. Manuscript drafts were reviewed by all authors and the sponsor and all the authors made the decision to submit the manuscript for publication

    Ultrasounds induce blood-brain barrier opening across a sonolucent polyolefin plate in an in vitro isolated brain preparation

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    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents a major obstacle to the delivery of drugs to the central nervous system. The combined use of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound waves and intravascular microbubbles (MB) represents a promising solution to this issue, allowing reversible disruption of the barrier. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of BBB opening through a biocompatible, polyolefin-based plate in an in vitro whole brain model. Twelve in vitro guinea pig brains were employed; brains were insonated using a planar transducer with or without interposing the polyolefin plate during arterial infusion of MB. Circulating MBs were visualized with an ultrasonographic device with a linear probe. BBB permeabilization was assessed by quantifying at confocal microscopy the extravasation of FITC-albumin perfused after each treatment. US-treated brains displayed BBB permeabilization exclusively in the volume under the US beam; no significant differences were observed between brains insonated with or without the polyolefin plate. Control brains not perfused with MB did not show signs of FITC-albumin extravasation. Our preclinical study suggests that polyolefin cranial plate could be implanted as a skull replacement to maintain craniotomic windows and perform post-surgical repeated BBB opening with ultrasound guidance to deliver therapeutic agents to the central nervous system

    Oncologic effectiveness of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy in cervical cancer

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    Objective: Nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH) was introduced with the aim to reduce pelvic dysfunctions related to conventional radical hysterectomy (RH). Here, we sought to assess the effectiveness and safety of NSRH in a relatively large number of the patients of cervical cancer (CC) patients undergoing either primary surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by surgery. Methods: Outcomes of consecutive patients undergoing NSRH and of a historical cohort of patients undergoing conventional RH were retrospectively reviewed. Results: This study included 325 (49.8%) and 327 (50.2%) undergoing NSRH and RH, respectively. Via a multivariable model, nodal status was the only factor predicting for DFS (hazard ratio [HR]=2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.17\u20133.73; p=0.01). A trend towards high risk of recurrence was observed for patients affected by locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) undergoing NACT followed by surgery (HR=2.57; 95% CI=0.95\u20136.96; p=0.06). Type of surgical procedures (NSRH vs. RH) did not influence risk of recurrence (p=0.47). Similarly, we observed that the execution of NSRH rather than RH had not a detrimental effect on OS (HR=1.19; 95% CI=0.16\u20139.01; p=0.87). Via multivariable model, no factor directly correlated with OS. No difference in early complication rates was observed between the study groups. Conversely, a significant higher number of late complications was reported in RH versus NSRH groups (p=0.02). Conclusion: Our data suggested that NSRH upholds effectiveness of conventional RH, without increasing recurrence and complication rates but improving pelvic dysfunction rate

    A score system for complete cytoreduction in selected recurrent ovarian cancer patients undergoing secondary cytoreductive surgery: predictors- and nomogram-based analyses

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    Objective: To test the applicability of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gyn\ue4kologische Onkologie (AGO) and Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) criteria in predicting complete cytoreduction (CC) in patients undergoing secondary cytoreductive surgery (SCS) for recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC). Methods: Data of consecutive patients undergoing SCS were reviewed. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gyn\ue4kologische Onkologie OVARian cancer study group (AGO-OVAR) and MSK criteria were retrospectively applied. Nomograms, based on AGO criteria, MSK criteria and both AGO and MSK criteria were built in order to assess the probability to achieve CC at SCS. Results: Overall, 194 patients met the inclusion criteria. CC was achieved in 161 (82.9%) patients. According to the AGO-OVAR criteria, we observed that CC was achieved in 87.0% of patients with positive AGO score. However, 45 out of 71 (63.4%) patients who did not fulfilled the AGO score had CC. Similarly, CC was achieved in 87.1%, 61.9% and 66.7% of patients for whom SCS was recommended, had to be considered and was not recommended, respectively. In order to evaluate the predictive value of the AGO-OVAR and MSK criteria we built 2 separate nomograms (c-index: 0.5900 and 0.5989, respectively) to test the probability to achieve CC at SCS. Additionally, we built a nomogram using both the aforementioned criteria (c-index: 0.5857). Conclusion: The AGO and MSK criteria help identifying patients deserving SCS. However, these criteria might be strict, thus prohibiting a beneficial treatment in patients who do not met these criteria. Further studies are needed to clarify factors predicting CC at SC

    the curious phenomenon of dual positive circulating cells longtime overlooked tumor cells

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    Abstract The presence in the blood of patients with solid tumors of circulating cells expressing both epithelial and leukocyte markers (dual-positive cells, DPcells), has often been reported, though it has never been investigated in detail. A recent study suggested that DPcells are hybrid cells derived from the fusion of tumor cells with macrophages. Such fusion hybrids acquire macrophage-associated features endowing them with accelerated growth, increased motility, enhanced invasion activity and thus, a higher efficiency in metastasis formation. However, no direct evidence proving the tumor origin of circulating DPcells was provided in patients. Here we contribute a review of literature data on DPcells and on the hybrid theory with the aim of putting the current evidence both in a biological and clinical perspective and to generate new hypotheses on the mechanisms underlying tumor progression. To add further biological and clinical context to our literature review, we also report some preliminary data from our laboratory on the identification of DPcells in several solid tumors and confirmation of their malignant genotype, thus classifying them as DP-CTCs

    Intracranial Sonodynamic Therapy With 5-Aminolevulinic Acid and Sodium Fluorescein: Safety Study in a Porcine Model

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    BackgroundSonodynamic therapy (SDT) is an emerging ultrasound-based treatment modality for malignant gliomas which combines ultrasound with sonosensitizers to produce a localized cytotoxic and modulatory effect. Tumor-specificity of the treatment is achieved by the selective extravasation and accumulation of sonosensitizers in the tumor-bearing regions. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the safety of low-intensity ultrasonic irradiation of healthy brain tissue after the administration of FDA-approved sonosensitizers used for SDT in experimental studies in an in vivo large animal model.MethodsIn vivo safety of fluorescein (Na-Fl)- and 5 aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-mediated low-intensity ultrasound irradiation of healthy brain parenchyma was assessed in two sets of four healthy swine brains, using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Insightec ExAblate 4000 220 kHz system. After administration of the sonosensitizers, a wide fronto-parietal craniotomy was performed in pig skulls to allow transmission of ultrasonic beams. Sonication was performed on different spots within the thalamus and periventricular white matter with continuous thermal monitoring. Sonication-related effects were investigated with MRI and histological analysis.ResultsPost-treatment MRI images acquired within one hour following the last sonication, on day one, and day seven did not visualize any sign of brain damage. On histopathology, no signs of necrosis or apoptosis attributable to the ultrasonic treatments were shown in target areas.ConclusionsThe results of the present study suggest that either Na-FL or 5-ALA-mediated sonodynamic therapies under MRI-guidance with the current acoustic parameters are safe towards healthy brain tissue in a large in vivo model. These results further support growing interest in clinical translation of sonodynamic therapy for intracranial gliomas and other brain tumors
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