4,306 research outputs found

    Hepatotrophic effect of insulin

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    The origin, hormonal nature, and action of hepatotrophic substances in portal venous blood

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    The hepatotrophic factors previously reported to be in splanchnic venous blood are pancreatic hormones and specifically insulin and glucagon. Of these, insulin is anabolic and glucagon is mainly catabolic but not exclusively so, since glucagon also has the anabolic effect of stimulating gluconeogenesis. The insulin glucagon relationship and the interrelationship of these hormones to others, such as epinephrine, in the moment to moment regulation of nutrient and hepatic homeostasis is a central fact of liver physiology that should reconcile a number of previously divergent opinions about portoprival syndromes, mechanisms of hepatic atrophy and hyperplasia, and the control of liver regeneration

    The effects of portacaval shunt upon hepatic cholesterol synthesis and cyclic AMP in dogs and baboons

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    Hepatic cholesterol synthesis, hepatic cyclic AMP, and portal and peripheral insulin and glucagon levels were investigated in nine dogs and three baboons after complete portacaval shunt. Cholesterol synthesis as measured with acetate incorporation was reduced in both species. Hepatic cyclic AMP increased in dogs. Changes in portal and systemic insulin were inconsistent, but hyper-glucagonemia occurred regularly. Diminished hepatic cholesterol synthesis is apparently one factor, although probably not the only one, in the antilipidemic effect of portacaval shunt. This altered cholesterol metabolism may be due to a change in the hormonal environment of the liver caused by portal diversion

    Grid Infrastructure for Domain Decomposition Methods in Computational ElectroMagnetics

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    The accurate and efficient solution of Maxwell's equation is the problem addressed by the scientific discipline called Computational ElectroMagnetics (CEM). Many macroscopic phenomena in a great number of fields are governed by this set of differential equations: electronic, geophysics, medical and biomedical technologies, virtual EM prototyping, besides the traditional antenna and propagation applications. Therefore, many efforts are focussed on the development of new and more efficient approach to solve Maxwell's equation. The interest in CEM applications is growing on. Several problems, hard to figure out few years ago, can now be easily addressed thanks to the reliability and flexibility of new technologies, together with the increased computational power. This technology evolution opens the possibility to address large and complex tasks. Many of these applications aim to simulate the electromagnetic behavior, for example in terms of input impedance and radiation pattern in antenna problems, or Radar Cross Section for scattering applications. Instead, problems, which solution requires high accuracy, need to implement full wave analysis techniques, e.g., virtual prototyping context, where the objective is to obtain reliable simulations in order to minimize measurement number, and as consequence their cost. Besides, other tasks require the analysis of complete structures (that include an high number of details) by directly simulating a CAD Model. This approach allows to relieve researcher of the burden of removing useless details, while maintaining the original complexity and taking into account all details. Unfortunately, this reduction implies: (a) high computational effort, due to the increased number of degrees of freedom, and (b) worsening of spectral properties of the linear system during complex analysis. The above considerations underline the needs to identify appropriate information technologies that ease solution achievement and fasten required elaborations. The authors analysis and expertise infer that Grid Computing techniques can be very useful to these purposes. Grids appear mainly in high performance computing environments. In this context, hundreds of off-the-shelf nodes are linked together and work in parallel to solve problems, that, previously, could be addressed sequentially or by using supercomputers. Grid Computing is a technique developed to elaborate enormous amounts of data and enables large-scale resource sharing to solve problem by exploiting distributed scenarios. The main advantage of Grid is due to parallel computing, indeed if a problem can be split in smaller tasks, that can be executed independently, its solution calculation fasten up considerably. To exploit this advantage, it is necessary to identify a technique able to split original electromagnetic task into a set of smaller subproblems. The Domain Decomposition (DD) technique, based on the block generation algorithm introduced in Matekovits et al. (2007) and Francavilla et al. (2011), perfectly addresses our requirements (see Section 3.4 for details). In this chapter, a Grid Computing infrastructure is presented. This architecture allows parallel block execution by distributing tasks to nodes that belong to the Grid. The set of nodes is composed by physical machines and virtualized ones. This feature enables great flexibility and increase available computational power. Furthermore, the presence of virtual nodes allows a full and efficient Grid usage, indeed the presented architecture can be used by different users that run different applications

    The effect of splanchnic viscera removal upon canine liver regeneration

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    The influence of portal blood factors on canine liver regeneration was studied with graded nonhepatic splanchnic evisceration, coupled with 44 and 72 per cent hepatectomies. In one type of experiment, the pancreas was retained while the rest of the intra-abdominal gastrointestinal tract was removed. In a second variety, total pancreatectomy was performed with preservation of the intra-abdominal organs. In a third kind of experiment, total nonhepatic splanchnic evisceration was performed. Liver regeneration after hepatectomy was decreased by all three kinds of viscera removed as judged by deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, autoradiography and mitotic index. Pancreatectomy and nonpancreatic splanchnic evisceration caused almost equal decreases in the regenerative response. Total nonhepatic splanchnic evisceration essentially halted regeneration during the first three postoperative days and intraportal infusions of insulin or glucagon, or both together, did not reverse this effect. The decrease in liver membrane bound adenyl cyclase activity and biphasic change in liver cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate concentrations normally seen partial hepatectomy was disrupted after the various eviscerations. Adenyl cyclase activity and cyclic monophosphate concentrations tended to be higher than normal in the eviscerated dogs. These observations provide more support for our previously proposed hypothesis that control of liver regeneration is by multiple factors. Pancreatic hormones are important modifiers of this response but by no means exercise exclusive control. Other substances of gastrointestinal origin, presumably including hormones and nutrient supply apparently play important specific roles. The volume of portal flow is a secondary and nonspecific, but possibly significant, factor
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