203 research outputs found

    Effects of temperature and salinity on four species of northeastern Atlantic scyphistomae (Cnidaria Scyphozoa)

    Get PDF
    This work was funded by the MASTS pooling initiative (Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland), and we gratefully acknowledge that support. MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011) and contributing institutions. C.L.W. is also grateful to the US/UK Fulbright Commission and the University of St Andrews for their financial support.Laboratory incubation experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different temperatures (4, 9, 14, 19, 23°C) and salinities (21, 27, 34) on survival and asexual reproduction of scyphistomae of Cyanea capillata, C. lamarckii, Chrysaora hysoscella, and Aurelia aurita in order to better understand how climate variability may affect the timing and magnitude of jellyfish blooms. Significant mortality was observed only for C. capillata and Ch. hysoscella at the highest and lowest temperatures, respectively, but temperature and salinity significantly affected the asexual reproductive output for all species. As temperature increased, production rates of podocysts increased and, if produced, progeny scyphistomae by side budding also increased. However, strobilation rates, and therefore the mean number of ephyrae produced, decreased when scyphistomae were exposed to elevated temperatures. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for why ephyrae of these species tend to be produced during colder periods of the year whilst summer and early autumn are probably important periods for increasing the numbers of scyphistomae in natural populations.PostprintPeer reviewe

    Evidence gathering in support of sustainable Scottish inshore fisheries: work package (4) final report: a pilot study to define the footprint and activities of Scottish inshore fisheries by identifying target fisheries, habitats and associated fish stocks

    Get PDF
    [Extract from Executive Summary] This work was conducted under Work package 4 of the European Fisheries Funded program “Evidence Gathering in Support of Sustainable Scottish Inshore Fisheries”. The overall aim of the program was to work in partnership with Marine Scotland Fisheries Policy and with the Scottish Inshore Fisheries Groups to help develop inshore fisheries management. Specifically the program aims were to establish the location of fishing activities within inshore areas; to identify catch composition and associated fishery impacts; to define the environmental footprint and availability of stocks; to develop economic value within local fisheries and; to establish an information resource base to assist the development of inshore fisheries management provisions.Publisher PD

    Genetic Modification of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes with a Transdominant Negative Form of Rev: Safety and Toxicity

    Full text link
    Overview summary Expression of Rev M10, a transdominant mutant form of the Rev gene, in T cell lines confers resistance to HIV in vitro. Isertion of this Rev M10 gene into PBL appears to be nontoxic and well-tolerated by SCID mice. These results demonstrate that genetic modification of T cells by an antiviral gene can be performed safely and without overt toxicity. This finding encourages the development of therapeutic strategies to genetically protect T cells to prolong their survival in HIV-infected individuals.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/63234/1/hum.1995.6.8-997.pd

    Survival rates for Nephrops norvegicus discarded from Northern European trawl fisheries

    Get PDF
    When discarded from bottom trawl fisheries, survival of Nephrops norvegicus may be sufficiently high that this species can be exempted from the EU Landing Obligation. In three studies, Nephrops were sampled from trawlers in northern European waters, and the fate of individuals monitored for a minimum of 13 days in onshore tanks. Winter estimates of captive survival (means ± 95% confidence intervals), including immediate mortality during catch sorting, were 62 ± 2.8% for the West of Scotland, 57 ± 1.8% for the Farne Deeps (North Sea), and 67 ± 5.4% for the Skagerrak. The Farne Deeps fishery is not active in summer, but captive survival rates in summer in the other two areas were reduced to 47 ± 3.4% for West of Scotland and 40 ± 4.8% for the Skagerrak. Linear modelling of the West of Scotland and Skagerrak data suggested that higher survivals in winter were related to colder water or air temperatures, although temperatures during captive observation may also have had an impact. Net modifications in the Skagerrak study had an effect on survival, which was higher for Nephrops sampled from nets equipped with the more selective Swedish sorting grid compared to Seltra trawls

    Evaluating the End-User Experience of Private Browsing Mode

    Get PDF
    Nowadays, all major web browsers have a private browsing mode. However, the mode's benefits and limitations are not particularly understood. Through the use of survey studies, prior work has found that most users are either unaware of private browsing or do not use it. Further, those who do use private browsing generally have misconceptions about what protection it provides. However, prior work has not investigated \emph{why} users misunderstand the benefits and limitations of private browsing. In this work, we do so by designing and conducting a three-part study: (1) an analytical approach combining cognitive walkthrough and heuristic evaluation to inspect the user interface of private mode in different browsers; (2) a qualitative, interview-based study to explore users' mental models of private browsing and its security goals; (3) a participatory design study to investigate why existing browser disclosures, the in-browser explanations of private browsing mode, do not communicate the security goals of private browsing to users. Participants critiqued the browser disclosures of three web browsers: Brave, Firefox, and Google Chrome, and then designed new ones. We find that the user interface of private mode in different web browsers violates several well-established design guidelines and heuristics. Further, most participants had incorrect mental models of private browsing, influencing their understanding and usage of private mode. Additionally, we find that existing browser disclosures are not only vague, but also misleading. None of the three studied browser disclosures communicates or explains the primary security goal of private browsing. Drawing from the results of our user study, we extract a set of design recommendations that we encourage browser designers to validate, in order to design more effective and informative browser disclosures related to private mode

    The costs of preventing and treating chagas disease in Colombia

    Get PDF
    Background: The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy. Methods: Data were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for infestation with triatomine bugs and 3,305 houses sprayed with insecticide. A total of 63 patient records from 3 different hospitals were selected for a retrospective review of resource use. Consensus methodology with local experts was used to estimate care seeking behaviour and to complement observed data on utilisation. Findings: The mean cost per house per entomological survey was 4.4(inUS4.4 (in US of 2004), whereas the mean cost of spraying a house with insecticide was 27.Themaincostdriverofsprayingwasthepriceoftheinsecticide,whichvariedgreatly.TreatmentofachronicChagasdiseasepatientcostsbetween27. The main cost driver of spraying was the price of the insecticide, which varied greatly. Treatment of a chronic Chagas disease patient costs between 46.4 and 7,981peryearinColombia,dependingonseverityandthelevelofcareused.Combiningcostandutilisationestimatestheexpectedcostoftreatmentperpatientyearis7,981 per year in Colombia, depending on severity and the level of care used. Combining cost and utilisation estimates the expected cost of treatment per patient-year is 1,028, whereas lifetime costs averaged $11,619 per patient. Chronic Chagas disease patients have limited access to healthcare, with an estimated 22% of patients never seeking care. Conclusion: Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of surveying houses for infestation and spraying infested houses were low in comparison to other studies and in line with treatment costs. Care seeking behaviour and the type of insurance affiliation seem to play a role in the facilities and type of care that patients use, thus raising concerns about equitable access to care. Preventing Chagas disease in Colombia would be cost-effective and could contribute to prevent inequalities in health and healthcare.Wellcome Trus

    Adverse effects of Z-drugs for sleep disturbance in people living with dementia:a population-based cohort study

    Get PDF
    Background: Sleep disturbance is common in dementia and often treated with Z-drugs (zopiclone, zaleplon, and zolpidem). While some observational studies suggest that Z-drugs are associated with adverse events such as falls and fracture risks in older people, this has not been studied in dementia. Methods: We used data from 27,090 patients diagnosed with dementia between January 2000 and March 2016 from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episodes Statistics data in England. We compared adverse events for 3532 patients newly prescribed Z-drugs by time-varying dosage to (1) 1833 non-sedative-users with sleep disturbance; (2) 10,214 non-sedative-users with proximal GP consultation matched on age, sex, and antipsychotic use; and (3) 5172 patients newly prescribed benzodiazepines. We defined higher dose Z-drugs and benzodiazepines as prescriptions equivalent to ≥ 7.5 mg zopiclone or > 5 mg diazepam daily. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident fracture, hip fracture, fall, mortality, acute bacterial infection, ischaemic stroke/transient ischaemic attack, and venous thromboembolism over a 2-year follow-up, adjusted for demographic- and health-related covariates. Results: The mean (SD) age of patients was 83 (7.7) years, and 16,802 (62%) were women. Of 3532 patients prescribed Z-drugs, 584 (17%) were initiated at higher doses. For patients prescribed higher dose Z-drugs relative to non-users with sleep disturbance, the HRs (95% confidence interval) for fractures, hip fractures, falls, and ischaemic stroke were 1.67 (1.13–2.46), 1.96 (1.16–3.31), 1.33 (1.06–1.66), and 1.88 (1.14–3.10), respectively. We observed similar associations when compared to non-sedative-users with proximal GP consultation. Minimal or inconsistent excess risks were observed at ≤ 3.75 mg zopiclone or equivalent daily, and for mortality, infection, and venous thromboembolism. We observed no differences in adverse events for Z-drugs compared to benzodiazepines, except lower mortality rates with Z-drugs (HR [95% confidence interval] of 0.73 [0.64–0.83]). Conclusions: Higher dose Z-drug use in dementia is associated with increased fracture and stroke risks, similar or greater to that for higher dose benzodiazepines. Higher dose Z-drugs should be avoided, if possible, in people living with dementia, and non-pharmacological alternatives preferentially considered. Prescriptions for higher dose Z-drugs in dementia should be regularly reviewed. Trial registration: ENCePP e-register of studies, EUPAS18006