590 research outputs found

    Stabilization of multiple resistance levels by current-sweep in SiOx-based resistive switching memory

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    Using current-sweep measurements, the set process in SiOx-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) has been found to consist of multiple resistance-reduction steps. Variation in set behaviors was observed and attributed to different defect distributions in the resistance switching region. Physical mechanism of electroforming process is discussed, which further explains the observed variation of defect distributions. A compliance current study confirms that the achievable memory states of SiOx RRAM are determined by its set behavior. This finding provides additional insight on achieving multi-bit memory storage with SiOx RRAM. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.Microelectronics Research Cente

    Analysis of Fabric-reinforced Embankment Test Section at Pinto Pass, Mobile, Alabama

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    Dopamine Transporters in Striatum Correlate with Deactivation in the Default Mode Network during Visuospatial Attention

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    BACKGROUND:Dopamine and dopamine transporters (DAT, which regulate extracellular dopamine in the brain) are implicated in the modulation of attention but their specific roles are not well understood. Here we hypothesized that dopamine modulates attention by facilitation of brain deactivation in the default mode network (DMN). Thus, higher striatal DAT levels, which would result in an enhanced clearance of dopamine and hence weaker dopamine signals, would be associated to lower deactivation in the DMN during an attention task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:For this purpose we assessed the relationship between DAT in striatum (measured with positron emission tomography and [(11)C]cocaine used as DAT radiotracer) and brain activation and deactivation during a parametric visual attention task (measured with blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging) in healthy controls. We show that DAT availability in caudate and putamen had a negative correlation with deactivation in ventral parietal regions of the DMN (precuneus, BA 7) and a positive correlation with deactivation in a small region in the ventral anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24/32). With increasing attentional load, DAT in caudate showed a negative correlation with load-related deactivation increases in precuneus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:These findings provide evidence that dopamine transporters modulate neural activity in the DMN and anterior cingulate gyrus during visuospatial attention. Our findings suggest that dopamine modulates attention in part by regulating neuronal activity in posterior parietal cortex including precuneus (region involved in alertness) and cingulate gyrus (region deactivated in proportion to emotional interference). These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of stimulant medications (increase dopamine by blocking DAT) in inattention reflect in part their ability to facilitate the deactivation of the DMN

    Association of Body Mass and Brain Activation during Gastric Distention: Implications for Obesity

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    BACKGROUND:Gastric distention (GD), as it occurs during meal ingestion, signals a full stomach and it is one of the key mechanisms controlling food intake. Previous studies on GD showed lower activation of the amygdala for subjects with higher body mass index (BMI). Since obese subjects have dopaminergic deficits that correlate negatively with BMI and the amygdala is innervated by dopamine neurons, we hypothesized that BMI would correlate negatively with activation not just in the amygdala but also in other dopaminergic brain regions (midbrain and hypothalamus). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate brain activation during GD in 24 healthy subjects with BMI range of 20-39 kg/m(2). Using multiple regression and cross-correlation analyses based on a family-wise error corrected threshold P = 0.05, we show that during slow GD to maximum volumes of 500 ml and 700 ml subjects with increased BMI had increased activation in cerebellum and left posterior insula, and decreased activation of dopaminergic (amygdala, midbrain, hypothalamus, thalamus) and serotonergic (pons) brain regions and anterior insula, regions that were functionally interconnected with one another. CONCLUSIONS:The negative correlation between BMI and BOLD responses to gastric distention in dopaminergic (midbrain, hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus) and serotonergic (pons) brain regions is consistent with disruption of dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling in obesity. In contrast the positive correlation between BMI and BOLD responses in posterior insula and cerebellum suggests an opposing mechanism that promotes food intake in obese subjects that may underlie their ability to consume at once large food volumes despite increasing gastric distention

    CMOS and memristive hardware for neuromorphic computing

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    The ever-increasing processing power demands of digital computers cannot continue to be fulfilled indefinitely unless there is a paradigm shift in computing. Neuromorphic computing, which takes inspiration from the highly parallel, low power, high speed, and noise-tolerant computing capabilities of the brain, may provide such a shift. To that end, various aspects of the brain, from its basic building blocks, such as neurons and synapses, to its massively parallel in-memory computing networks have been being studied by the huge neuroscience community. Concurrently, many researchers from across academia and industry have been studying materials, devices, circuits, and systems, to implement some of the functions of networks of neurons and synapses to develop bio-inspired (neuromorphic) computing platforms

    Does compulsory voting increase support for leftist policy?

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    Citizens unequally participate in referendums, and this may systematically bias policy in favor of those who vote. Some view compulsory voting as an important tool to alleviate this problem, whereas others worry about its detrimental effects on the legitimacy and quality of democratic decision making. So far, however, we lack systematic knowledge about the causal effect of compulsory voting on public policy. We argue that sanctioned compulsory voting mobilizes citizens at the bottom of the income distribution and that this translates into an increase in support for leftist policies. We empirically explore the effects of a sanctioned compulsory voting law on direct-democratic decision making in Switzerland. We find that compulsory voting significantly increases electoral support for leftist policy positions in referendums by up to 20 percentage points. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of the policy consequences of electoral institutions

    Review of Recently Progress on Neural Electronics and Memcomputing Applications in Intrinsic SiOx-Based Resistive Switching Memory

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    In this chapter, we focus on the recent process on memcomputing (memristor + computing) in intrinsic SiOx-based resistive switching memory (ReRAM or called memristor). In the first section of the chapter, we investigate neuromorphic computing by mimicking the synaptic behaviors in integrating one-diode and one-resistive switching element (1D-1R) architecture. The power consumption can be minimized further in synaptic functions because sneak-path current has been suppressed and the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors has been demonstrated, representing critical milestones and achievements for the application of conventional SiOx-based materials in future advanced neuromorphic computing. In the next section of chapter, we will discuss an implementation technique of implication operations for logic-in-memory computation by using a SiOx-based memristor. The implication function and its truth table have been implemented with the unipolar or nonpolar operation scheme. Furthermore, a circuit with 1D-1R architecture with a 4 × 4 crossbar array has been demonstrated, which realizes the functionality of a one-bit full adder as same as CMOS logic circuits with lower design area requirement. This chapter suggests that a simple, robust approach to realize memcomputing chips is quite compatible with large-scale CMOS manufacturing technology by using an intrinsic SiOx-based memristor
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