785 research outputs found

    Influences of Pacific Island human communities on benthic coral reef functioning and resilience

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    A multitude of local and global stressors are threatening the diversity and productivity of coral reef ecosystems within the current era of the Anthropocene. While the effects of global stressors on coral reefs are relatively well understood, the role of various local human impacts and their interaction with global stressors remains under debate. By using a combination of observational-, theoretical- and secondary data-based approaches, this thesis aimed to improve understanding of relationships between local human impacts and benthic coral reef communities in the understudied Pacific Island region. Particularly, it addressed how various levels and types of local impacts can directly and indirectly influence benthic coral reef functioning and in turn future resilience to global stressors

    CHAMPS in a Second-Grade Classroom

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    Classroom management can be a big struggle for some teachers, to the point that some school districts have begun initiatives for the implementation of specific behavior management programs. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the effectiveness of the behavior management program of CHAMPS. The author collected data through student surveys, classroom observations, and teacher and student interviews. After analyzing the data by using a constant comparative method, the author found five major themes. The first theme was the continual reference to CHAMPS expectations within the classroom. The author then found the theme of the feelings and needs of both students and teachers. The next theme was that of both conversation and listening that happened in the classroom. The fourth theme was leadership created by CHAMPS that was exhibited in the classroom. The final topic was that of respect shown by both students and teachers. This study may provide useful information to other educators or districts already implementing CHAMPS or thinking about implementing CHAMPS within their classrooms

    Book Review: Black Handsworth: Race in 1980s Britain by Kieran Connell

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    The Evaluation of Enhancing Biological Phosphorus Removal and Improving Settleability Using Mainstream Hydrocyclones for External Selection

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    Hydrocyclones, which receive mixed liquor tangentially, separate lighter solids from more dense solids through their tapered shape. Increasing the velocity of liquid as it moves downward allows for the selection of a desired solids fraction. Limited research has been conducted utilizing 20 m3hr-1 hydrocyclones, with the intent of improving settleability and biological phosphorus removal (Bio-P) for mainstream processes. Improved settleability would allow for increased capacity in the secondary clarifiers which prevents the loss of biomass and subsequent treatment disruption, especially during wet weather scenarios. In addition, treatment intensification can be accomplished by maintaining a higher mixed liquor suspended solids concentration within the secondary process. The retainment of phosphate accumulating organism (PAOs) in the underflow can lead to stabilization in secondary treatment systems by maintaining the biomass population. By amassing more denitrifying PAOs (dPAOs), which utilize either nitrate or nitrite as their electron acceptor during phosphorus uptake, allows treatment to become more efficient by utilizing influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) for both nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Achieving reliable Bio-P allows for a decrease in metal salt addition and, if operating in a low alkalinity system, a further decrease in caustic addition. The site of the research was the Hampton Roads Sanitation District’s James River Wastewater Treatment Plant located in Newport News, VA. This facility is rated for an annual average design flow of 20 mgd, utilizes a 4-stage Bardenpho configuration with an integrated fixed film system IFAS system, and has had historically poor settleability, SVI30 140 + 34 mL g-1, not associated with filaments, nutrient deficiencies, or elevated monovalent to divalent cation ratios. The influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) of 250 to 350 mg L-1 allows for seasonal Bio-P without a formal anaerobic selector. In order to evaluate the potential to stabilize year-round Bio-P and improved settleability, eight hydrocyclones were installed and continuously operated from June 2015. Hydrocyclone performance was evaluated with comparison of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS), hydraulic and mass split for the overflow and underflow, and initial settling velocity (ISV) analysis. Granulation analysis was performed at discrete particle settling concentrations of ~150 mg L-1 MLSS to find the percentage of flocs, aggregates, and granules. Floc density was measured using the Percoll method with density beads. Activity measurements for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB), ordinary heterotrophic organisms (OHO), PAO, dPAO, and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) were performed on the plant aeration tank mixed liquor, cyclone feed, underflow, and overflow. With continued operation, the underflow MLSS measured ~ 40 g/L with ISV measurements of greater than 20 m hr-1; however, the mass return was limited to less than 10 percent. Kinetic activity measurements indicated washout of AOBs, NOBs, and OHOs did not occur with hydrocylone operation. The aeration effluent MLSS density increased indicating the potential for improved settleability. Biological phosphorus removal stabilized as indicated by activity measurements with hydrocyclone operation and better management of sidestream TP load

    Ascertaining severe perineal trauma and associated risk factors by comparing birth data with multiple sources

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    Objectives Population data are often used to monitor severe perineal trauma trends and association of risk factors. Within NSW, two different datasets can be used; the Perinatal Data Collection (‘birth’ data), or a linked dataset combining birth data with the Admitted Patient Hospital Data Collection (‘hospital’ data). Severe perineal trauma can be ascertained by birth data alone, or by hospital ICD-10-AM diagnosis and procedure coding in the linked dataset. The aim of this study is to compare rates and risk factors for severe perineal trauma using birth data alone, with those using linked data. Methods The study population consisted of all vaginal births in NSW 2001-2011. As perineal injury coding in birth data was revised in 2006, data were analysed separately for 2 ‘earlier data’ and ‘more recent data’. Rates of severe perineal injury over time were compared in birth data alone, and in linked data. Kappa and agreement statistics were calculated. Risk factor distributions (primiparity, instrumental birth, birthweight≥4kg, Asian country of birth and episiotomy) were compared between women with severe perineal trauma identified by birth data alone, and identified by linked data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios of severe perineal trauma. Results Among 697,202 vaginal births, 2.1% were identified with severe perineal trauma by birth data alone, and 2.6% by linked data. The rate discrepancy was higher among earlier data (1.7% for birth data, 2.4% for linked data). Kappa for earlier data was 0.78 (95% CI 0.78, 0.79), and 0.89 (95% CI 0.89, 0.89) for more recent data. With the exception of episiotomy, differences in risk factor distributions were small, with similar adjusted odds ratios. Adjusted odds ratio of severe perineal trauma for episiotomy was higher (1.34 95% CI 1.27, 1.41) using linked data compared with birth data (1.03 95% CI 0.97, 1.09). Conclusions While discrepancies in ascertainment of severe perineal trauma improved after revision of birth data coding in 2006, higher ascertainment by linked data was still evident for recent data. There were also higher risk estimates of severe perineal trauma with episiotomy by linked data than by birth data.Australian Research Council; Dr Albert S McKern Research Scholarshi
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