974 research outputs found

    Long term exposure to air pollution and kidney parenchyma cancer – Effects of low-level air pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE).

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    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) is classified as a group 1 human carcinogen. Previous experimental studies suggest that particles in diesel exhaust induce oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage in kidney cells, but the evidence from population studies linking air pollution to kidney cancer is limited. METHODS: We pooled six European cohorts (N = 302,493) to assess the association of residential exposure to fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), warm season ozone (O3) and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium, and zinc) with cancer of the kidney parenchyma. The main exposure model was developed for year 2010. We defined kidney parenchyma cancer according to the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th Revision codes 189.0 and C64. We applied Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders at the individual and area-level. RESULTS: The participants were followed from baseline (1985–2005) to 2011–2015. A total of 847 cases occurred during 5,497,514 person-years of follow-up (average 18.2 years). Median (5–95%) exposure levels of NO2, PM2.5, BC and O3 were 24.1 μg/m3 (12.8–39.2), 15.3 μg/m3 (8.6–19.2), 1.6 10−5 m−1 (0.7–2.1), and 87.0 μg/m3 (70.3–97.4), respectively. The results of the fully adjusted linear analyses showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92, 1.15) per 10 μg/m³ NO2, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.21) per 5 μg/m³ PM2.5, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.11) per 0.5 10−5 m−1 BCE, and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.02) per 10 μg/m³ O3. We did not find associations between any of the elemental components of PM2.5 and cancer of the kidney parenchyma. CONCLUSION: We did not observe an association between long-term ambient air pollution exposure and incidence of kidney parenchyma cancer

    Long-term exposure to elemental components of fine particulate matter and all-natural and cause-specific mortality in a Danish nationwide administrative cohort study

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    BACKGROUND: Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is a well-recognized risk factor for premature death. However, evidence on which PM(2.5) components are most relevant is unclear. METHODS: We evaluated the associations between mortality and long-term exposure to eight PM(2.5) elemental components [copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), sulfur (S), nickel (Ni), vanadium (V), silicon (Si), and potassium (K)]. Studied outcomes included death from diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), dementia, and psychiatric disorders as well as all-natural causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory diseases (RD), and lung cancer. We followed all residents in Denmark (aged >/=30 years) from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2017. We used European-wide land-use regression models at a 100 x 100 m scale to estimate the residential annual mean levels of exposure to PM(2.5) components. The models were developed with supervised linear regression (SLR) and random forest (RF). The associations were evaluated by Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for individual- and area-level socioeconomic factors and total PM(2.5) mass. RESULTS: Of 3,081,244 individuals, we observed 803,373 death from natural causes during follow-up. We found significant positive associations between all-natural mortality with Si and K from both exposure modeling approaches (hazard ratios; 95% confidence intervals per interquartile range increase): SLR-Si (1.04; 1.03-1.05), RF-Si (1.01; 1.00-1.02), SLR-K (1.03; 1.02-1.04), and RF-K (1.06; 1.05-1.07). Strong associations of K and Si were detected with most causes of mortality except CKD and K, and diabetes and Si (the strongest associations for psychiatric disorders mortality). In addition, Fe was relevant for mortality from RD, lung cancer, CKD, and psychiatric disorders; Zn with mortality from CKD, RD, and lung cancer, and; Ni and V with lung cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We present novel results of the relevance of different PM(2.5) components for different causes of death, with K and Si seeming to be most consistently associated with mortality in Denmark

    Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and non-accidental mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background: The health effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) continue to be of important public health interest across the globe. Following its 2010 review, the Health Effects Institute appointed a new expert Panel to systematically evaluate the epidemiological evidence regarding the associations between long-term exposure to TRAP and selected health outcomes. This paper describes the main findings of the systematic review on non-accidental mortality. Methods: The Panel used a systematic approach to conduct the review. An extensive search was conducted of literature published between 1980 and 2019. A new exposure framework was developed to determine whether a study was sufficiently specific to TRAP, which included studies beyond the near-roadway environment. We performed random-effects meta-analysis when at least three estimates were available of an association between a specific exposure and outcome. We evaluated confidence in the evidence using a modified Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) approach, supplemented with a broader narrative synthesis. Results: Thirty-six cohort studies were included. Virtually all studies adjusted for a large number of individual and area-level covariates—including smoking, body mass index, and individual and area-level socioeconomic status—and were judged at a low or moderate risk for bias. Most studies were conducted in North America and Europe, and a few were based in Asia and Australia. The meta-analytic summary estimates for nitrogen dioxide, elemental carbon and fine particulate matter—pollutants with more than 10 studies—were 1.04 (95% CI 1.01, 1.06), 1.02 (1.00, 1.04) and 1.03 (1.01, 1.05) per 10, 1 and 5 µg/m3, respectively. Effect estimates are interpreted as the relative risk of mortality when the exposure differs with the selected increment. The confidence in the evidence for these pollutants was judged as high, because of upgrades for monotonic exposure–response and consistency across populations. The consistent findings across geographical regions, exposure assessment methods and confounder adjustment resulted in a high confidence rating using a narrative approach as well. Conclusions: The overall confidence in the evidence for a positive association between long-term exposure to TRAP and non-accidental mortality was high

    Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background Stroke remains the second cause of death worldwide. The mechanisms underlying the adverse association of exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) with overall cardiovascular disease may also apply to stroke. Our objective was to systematically evaluate the epidemiological evidence regarding the associations of long-term exposure to TRAP with stroke. Methods PubMed and LUDOK electronic databases were searched systematically for observational epidemiological studies from 1980 through 2019 on long-term exposure to TRAP and stroke with an update in January 2022. TRAP was defined according to a comprehensive protocol based on pollutant and exposure assessment methods or proximity metrics. Study selection, data extraction, risk of bias (RoB) and confidence assessments were conducted according to standardized protocols. We performed meta-analyses using random effects models; sensitivity analyses were assessed by geographic area, RoB, fatality, traffic specificity and new studies. Results Nineteen studies were included. The meta-analytic relative risks (and 95% confidence intervals) were: 1.03 (0.98-1.09) per 1 μg/m3 EC, 1.09 (0.96-1.23) per 10 μg/m3 PM10, 1.08 (0.89-1.32) per 5 μg/m3 PM2.5, 0.98 (0.92; 1.05) per 10 μg/m3 NO2 and 0.99 (0.94; 1.04) per 20 μg/m3 NOx with little to moderate heterogeneity based on 6, 5, 4, 7 and 8 studies, respectively. The confidence assessments regarding the quality of the body of evidence and separately regarding the presence of an association of TRAP with stroke considering all available evidence were rated low and moderate, respectively. Conclusion The available literature provides low to moderate evidence for an association of TRAP with stroke

    Novel Immunotherapeutic Approaches to Treating HPV-Related Head and Neck Cancer

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    Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the seventh most common malignancy, with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) accounting for a majority of cases in the western world. While HNC accounts for only 5% of all cancers in the United States, the incidence of a subset of OPSCC caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is increasing rapidly. The treatment for OPSCC is multifaceted, with a recently emerging focus on immunotherapeutic approaches. With the increased incidence of HPV-related OPSCC and the approval of immunotherapy in the management of recurrent and metastatic HNC, there has been rising interest in exploring the role of immunotherapy in the treatment of HPV-related OPSCC specifically. The immune microenvironment in HPV-related disease is distinct from that in HPV-negative OPSCC, which has prompted further research into various immunotherapeutics. This review focuses on HPV-related OPSCC, its immune characteristics, and current challenges and future opportunities for immunotherapeutic applications in this virus-driven cancer

    Long-term air pollution exposure and malignant intracranial tumours of the central nervous system: a pooled analysis of six European cohorts

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    BACKGROUND: Risk factors for malignant tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) are largely unknown. METHODS: We pooled six European cohorts (N = 302,493) and assessed the association between residential exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particles (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3) and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium, and zinc) and malignant intracranial CNS tumours defined according to the International Classification of Diseases ICD-9/ICD-10 codes 192.1/C70.0, 191.0-191.9/C71.0-C71.9, 192.0/C72.2-C72.5. We applied Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders at the individual and area-level. RESULTS: During 5,497,514 person-years of follow-up (average 18.2 years), we observed 623 malignant CNS tumours. The results of the fully adjusted linear analyses showed a hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.07 (0.95, 1.21) per 10 μg/m³ NO2, 1.17 (0.96, 1.41) per 5 μg/m³ PM2.5, 1.10 (0.97, 1.25) per 0.5 10-5m-1 BC, and 0.99 (0.84, 1.17) per 10 μg/m³ O3. CONCLUSIONS: We observed indications of an association between exposure to NO2, PM2.5, and BC and tumours of the CNS. The PM elements were not consistently associated with CNS tumour incidence

    Clean air in europe for all: taking stock of the proposed revision to the ambient air quality directives. A Joint ERS, HEI, and ISEE Workshop Report

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    Ambient air pollution is a major public health concern and comprehensive new legislation is currently being considered to improve air quality in Europe. The European Respiratory Society (ERS), Health Effects Institute (HEI), and International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE) organised a joint meeting on May 24, 2023 in Brussels, Belgium, to review and critically evaluate the latest evidence on the health effects of air pollution and discuss ongoing revisions of the European Ambient Air Quality Directives (AAQDs). A multi-disciplinary expert group of air pollution and health researchers, patient and medical societies, and policy representatives participated. This report summarises key discussions at the meeting

    Novel Immunotherapeutic Approaches to Treating HPV-Related Head and Neck Cancer

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    Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the seventh most common malignancy, with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) accounting for a majority of cases in the western world. While HNC accounts for only 5% of all cancers in the United States, the incidence of a subset of OPSCC caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is increasing rapidly. The treatment for OPSCC is multifaceted, with a recently emerging focus on immunotherapeutic approaches. With the increased incidence of HPV-related OPSCC and the approval of immunotherapy in the management of recurrent and metastatic HNC, there has been rising interest in exploring the role of immunotherapy in the treatment of HPV-related OPSCC specifically. The immune microenvironment in HPV-related disease is distinct from that in HPV-negative OPSCC, which has prompted further research into various immunotherapeutics. This review focuses on HPV-related OPSCC, its immune characteristics, and current challenges and future opportunities for immunotherapeutic applications in this virus-driven cancer

    Long-term exposure to several constituents and sources of PM2.5 is associated with incidence of upper aerodigestive tract cancers but not gastric cancer: Results from the large pooled European cohort of the ELAPSE project

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    It is unclear whether cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) and gastric cancer are related to air pollution, due to few studies with inconsistent results. The effects of particulate matter (PM) may vary across locations due to different source contributions and related PM compositions, and it is not clear which PM constituents/sources are most relevant from a consideration of overall mass concentration alone. We therefore investigated the association of UADT and gastric cancers with PM2.5 elemental constituents and sources components indicative of different sources within a large multicentre population based epidemiological study. Cohorts with at least 10 cases per cohort led to ten and eight cohorts from five countries contributing to UADT- and gastric cancer analysis, respectively. Outcome ascertainment was based on cancer registry data or data of comparable quality. We assigned home address exposure to eight elemental constituents (Cu, Fe, K, Ni, S, Si, V and Zn) estimated from Europe-wide exposure models, and five source components identified by absolute principal component analysis (APCA). Cox regression models were run with age as time scale, stratified for sex and cohort and adjusted for relevant individual and neighbourhood level confounders. We observed 1139 UADT and 872 gastric cancer cases during a mean follow-up of 18.3 and 18.5 years, respectively. UADT cancer incidence was associated with all constituents except K in single element analyses. After adjustment for NO2, only Ni and V remained associated with UADT. Residual oil combustion and traffic source components were associated with UADT cancer persisting in the multiple source model. No associations were found for any of the elements or source components and gastric cancer incidence. Our results indicate an association of several PM constituents indicative of different sources with UADT but not gastric cancer incidence with the most robust evidence for traffic and residual oil combustion
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