636 research outputs found

    The efficacy of four-slice helical CT in evaluating pancreatic trauma: a single institution experience

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Study objective</p> <p>To assess the efficacy of computed tomography (CT) in evaluating patients with pancreatic trauma.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We undertook a retrospective review of all blunt trauma patients admitted to the Chi-Mei Medical Center from January 2004 to June 2006. Every patients underwent abdominal CT scan in emergency department and the CT scans were obtained with a four-slice helical CT. Diagnosis of a pancreatic injury in these patients was by surgical observation or by CT findings. Radiographic pancreatic injuries were classified as deep or superficial lesions. Deep lesions were defined as the hematomas or lacerations >50% thickness of the pancreas. Superficial lesions were described as the hematomas or lacerations <50% thickness of the pancreas; pancreatic edema; and focal fluid accumulation around the pancreas</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Nineteen patients with pancreatic trauma, fourteen males and five females, average age 40.6 ¬Ī 21.4 years, were included. Most patients (73.7%) with pancreatic trauma had associated organ injuries. CT was performed in all patients and laparotomy in 14 patients. CT was 78.9% sensitive in detecting pancreatic trauma. All deep pancreatic lesions revealed on CT required surgical treatment, and complication was discovered in two patients undergoing delayed surgery. Superficial lesions were managed conservatively.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Four-slice helical CT can detect most pancreatic trauma and provide practical therapeutic guidance. Delayed operation might result in complications and is associated with prolonged hospital stays.</p

    A new approach to cure and reinforce cold-cured acrylics

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    Purpose: The low degree of polymerization of cold-cured acrylics has resulted in inferior mechanical properties and fracture vulnerability in orthodontics removable appliances. Methods: In this study, the effect of reinforcement by various concentrations of chopped E-glass fibers (0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 5% by weight of resin powder) and post-curing microwave irradiation (800¬†W for 3¬†min) on the flexural strength of cold-cured acrylics was evaluated at various storage conditions (at room temperature for 1¬†day and 7¬†days; at water storage for 7, 14 and 30¬†days). Results: The data was analyzed by using 1-way and 2-way ANOVA, and a Tukey post hoc test (őĪ = .05). The specimens with chopped E-glass fibers treated with post-curing microwave irradiation significantly increased the flexural strength of cold-cured PMMA. The optimal concentration might be 2% fibers under irradiation. Conclusions: The exhibited reinforcement effect lasted in a consistent trend for 14¬†days in water storage. A new fiber-acrylic mixing method was also developed. ¬© 2012 The Author(s).published_or_final_versio

    Use of fluorescence imaging and indocyanine green during colorectal surgery: Results of an intercontinental Delphi survey

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    BACKGROUND: Fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green is increasingly being used in colorectal surgery to assess anastomotic perfusion, and to detect sentinel lymph nodes. METHODS: In this 2-round, online, Delphi survey, 35 international experts were asked to vote on 69 statements pertaining to patient preparation and contraindications to fluorescence imaging during colorectal surgery, indications, technical aspects, potential advantages/disadvantages, and effectiveness versus limitations, and training and research. Methodological steps were adopted during survey design to minimize risk of bias. RESULTS: More than 70% consensus was reached on 60 of 69 statements, including moderate-strong consensus regarding fluorescence imaging's value assessing anastomotic perfusion and leak risk, but not on its value mapping sentinel nodes. Similarly, although consensus was reached regarding most technical aspects of its use assessing anastomoses, little consensus was achieved for lymph-node assessments. Evaluating anastomoses, experts agreed that the optimum total indocyanine green dose and timing are 5 to 10 mg and 30 to 60 seconds pre-evaluation, indocyanine green should be dosed milligram/kilogram, lines should be flushed with saline, and indocyanine green can be readministered if bright perfusion is not achieved, although how long surgeons should wait remains unknown. The only consensus achieved for lymph-node assessments was that 2 to 4 injection points are needed. Ninety-six percent and 100% consensus were reached that fluorescence imaging will increase in practice and research over the next decade, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although further research remains necessary, fluorescence imaging appears to have value assessing anastomotic perfusion, but its value for lymph-node mapping remains questionable

    Search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at ‚ąö s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    Results of a search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum are reported. The search uses 20.3 fb‚ąí1 of ‚ąö s = 8 TeV data collected in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events are required to have at least one jet with pT > 120 GeV and no leptons. Nine signal regions are considered with increasing missing transverse momentum requirements between Emiss T > 150 GeV and Emiss T > 700 GeV. Good agreement is observed between the number of events in data and Standard Model expectations. The results are translated into exclusion limits on models with either large extra spatial dimensions, pair production of weakly interacting dark matter candidates, or production of very light gravitinos in a gauge-mediated supersymmetric model. In addition, limits on the production of an invisibly decaying Higgs-like boson leading to similar topologies in the final state are presente

    Dynamic phenotypic heterogeneity and the evolution of multiple RNA subtypes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: the PLANET study

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    Intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH) is a key challenge in cancer treatment, but previous studies have focused mainly on the genomic alterations without exploring phenotypic (transcriptomic and immune) heterogeneity. Using one of the largest prospective surgical cohorts for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) with multi-region sampling, we sequenced whole genomes and paired transcriptomes from 67 HCC patients (331 samples). We found that while genomic ITH was rather constant across TNM stages, phenotypic ITH had a very different trajectory and quickly diversified in stage II patients. Most strikingly, 30% patients were found to contain more than one transcriptomic subtype within a single tumor. Such phenotypic ITH was found to be much more informative in predicting patient survival than genomic ITH and explains the poor efficacy of single-target systemic therapies in HCC. Taken together, we not only revealed an unprecedentedly dynamic landscape of phenotypic heterogeneity in HCC, but also highlighted the importance of studying phenotypic evolution across cancer types

    Primary resection versus neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by resection for locally resectable or potentially resectable pancreatic carcinoma without distant metastasis. A multi-centre prospectively randomised phase II-study of the Interdisciplinary Working Group Gastrointestinal Tumours (AIO, ARO, and CAO)

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    BACKGROUND: The disappointing results of surgical therapy alone of ductal pancreatic cancer can only be improved using multimodal approaches. In contrast to adjuvant therapy, neoadjuvant chemoradiation is able to facilitate resectability with free margins and to lower lymphatic spread. Another advantage is better tolerability which consecutively allows applying multimodal treatment in a higher number of patients. Furthermore, the synopsis of the overall survival results of neoadjuvant trials suggests a higher rate compared to adjuvant trials. METHODS/DESIGN: As there are no prospectively randomised studies for neoadjuvant therapy, the Interdisciplinary Study Group of Gastrointestinal Tumours of the German Cancer Aid has started such a trial. The study investigates the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation in locally resectable or probably resectable cancer of the pancreatic head without distant metastasis on median overall survival time compared to primary surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is integrated into both arms. DISCUSSION: The protocol of the study is presented in condensed form after an introducing survey on adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer

    Rapid semi-automated quantitative multiplex tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assays for the differential diagnosis of influenza-like illness

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Influenza A, including avian influenza, is a major public health threat in developed and developing countries. Rapid and accurate detection is a key component of strategies to contain spread of infection, and the efficient diagnosis of influenza-like-illness is essential to protect health infrastructure in the event of a major influenza outbreak.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We developed a multiplexed PCR (MT-PCR) assay for the simultaneous diagnosis of respiratory viruses causing influenza-like illness, including the specific recognition of influenza A haemagglutinin subtypes H1, H3, and H5. We tested several hundred clinical specimens in two diagnostic reference laboratories and compared the results with standard techniques.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The sensitivity and specificity of these assays was higher than individual assays based on direct antigen detection and standard PCR against a range of control templates and in several hundred clinical specimens. The MT-PCR assays provided differential diagnoses as well as potentially useful quantitation of virus in clinical samples.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>MT-PCR is a potentially powerful tool for the differential diagnosis of influenza-like illness in the clinical diagnostic laboratory.</p
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