10,773 research outputs found

    Oxygen superstructures throughout the phase diagram of (Y,Ca)Ba2Cu3O6+x\bf (Y,Ca)Ba_2 Cu_3 O_{6+x}

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    Short-range lattice superstructures have been studied with high-energy x-ray diffuse scattering in underdoped, optimally doped, and overdoped (Y,Ca)Ba2Cu3O6+x\rm (Y,Ca)Ba_2 Cu_3 O_{6+x}. A new four-unit-cell superstructure was observed in compounds with x0.95x\sim 0.95. Its temperature, doping, and material dependence was used to attribute its origin to short-range oxygen vacancy ordering, rather than electronic instabilities in the CuO2\rm CuO_2 layers. No significant diffuse scattering is observed in YBa2_2Cu4_4O8_{8}. The oxygen superstructures must be taken into account when interpreting spectral anomalies in (Y,Ca)Ba2Cu3O6+x\rm (Y,Ca)Ba_2 Cu_3 O_{6+x}

    Formation of methyl iodide on a natural manganese oxide

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    This paper demonstrates that manganese oxides can initiate the formation of methyl iodide, a volatile compound that participates to the input of iodine into the atmosphere. The formation of methyl iodide was investigated using a natural manganese oxide in batch experiments for different conditions and concentrations of iodide, natural organic matter(NOM) and manganese oxide. Methyl iodide was formed at concentrations ≤1 μg L-1 for initial iodide concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 38.0 mg L-1. The production of methyl iodide increased with increasing initial concentrations of iodide ion and Mn sand and when pH decreased from 7 to 5. The hydrophilic NOM isolate exhibited the lowest yield of methyl iodide whereas hydrophobic NOM isolates such as Suwannee River HPOA fraction produced the highest concentration of methyl iodide. The formation of methyl iodide could take place through the oxidation of NOM on manganese dioxide in the presence of iodide. However, the implication of elemental iodine cannot be excluded at acidic pH. Manganese oxides can then participate with ferric oxides to the formation of methyl iodide in soils and sediments. The formation of methyl iodide is unlikely in technical systems such as drinking water treatment i.e. for ppt levels of iodide and low contact times with manganese oxides

    On a Conjecture of Rapoport and Zink

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    In their book Rapoport and Zink constructed rigid analytic period spaces FwaF^{wa} for Fontaine's filtered isocrystals, and period morphisms from PEL moduli spaces of pp-divisible groups to some of these period spaces. They conjectured the existence of an \'etale bijective morphism FaFwaF^a \to F^{wa} of rigid analytic spaces and of a universal local system of QpQ_p-vector spaces on FaF^a. For Hodge-Tate weights n1n-1 and nn we construct in this article an intrinsic Berkovich open subspace F0F^0 of FwaF^{wa} and the universal local system on F0F^0. We conjecture that the rigid-analytic space associated with F0F^0 is the maximal possible FaF^a, and that F0F^0 is connected. We give evidence for these conjectures and we show that for those period spaces possessing PEL period morphisms, F0F^0 equals the image of the period morphism. Then our local system is the rational Tate module of the universal pp-divisible group and enjoys additional functoriality properties. We show that only in exceptional cases F0F^0 equals all of FwaF^{wa} and when the Shimura group is GLnGL_n we determine all these cases.Comment: v2: 48 pages; many new results added, v3: final version that will appear in Inventiones Mathematica

    Arithmetic Spacetime Geometry from String Theory

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    An arithmetic framework to string compactification is described. The approach is exemplified by formulating a strategy that allows to construct geometric compactifications from exactly solvable theories at c=3c=3. It is shown that the conformal field theoretic characters can be derived from the geometry of spacetime, and that the geometry is uniquely determined by the two-dimensional field theory on the world sheet. The modular forms that appear in these constructions admit complex multiplication, and allow an interpretation as generalized McKay-Thompson series associated to the Mathieu and Conway groups. This leads to a string motivated notion of arithmetic moonshine.Comment: 36 page

    Interplay between magnetic anisotropy and interlayer coupling in nanosecond magnetization reversal of spin-valve trilayers

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    The influence of magnetic anisotropy on nanosecond magnetization reversal in coupled FeNi/Cu/Co trilayers was studied using a photoelectron emission microscope combined with x-ray magnetic circular dicroism. In quasi-isotropic samples the reversal of the soft FeNi layer is determined by domain wall pinning that leads to the formation of small and irregular domains. In samples with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, the domains are larger and the influence of local interlayer coupling dominates the domain structure and the reversal of the FeNi layer

    High-speed Photometric Observations of ZZ Ceti White Dwarf Candidates

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    We present high-speed photometric observations of ZZ Ceti white dwarf candidates drawn from the spectroscopic survey of bright DA stars from the Villanova White Dwarf Catalog by Gianninas et al., and from the recent spectroscopic survey of white dwarfs within 40 parsecs of the Sun by Limoges et al. We report the discovery of six new ZZ Ceti pulsators from these surveys, and several photometrically constant DA white dwarfs, which we then use to refine the location of the ZZ Ceti instability strip.Comment: 4 pages, 1 table, 2 figures, to appear in "19th European White Dwarf Workshop" in the ASP Conference Serie

    Face-to-face: Social work and evil

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    The concept of evil continues to feature in public discourses and has been reinvigorated in some academic disciplines and caring professions. This article navigates social workers through the controversy surrounding evil so that they are better equipped to acknowledge, reframe or repudiate attributions of evil in respect of themselves, their service users or the societal contexts impinging upon both. A tour of the landscape of evil brings us face-to-face with moral, administrative, societal and metaphysical evils, although it terminates in an exhortation to cultivate a more metaphorical language. The implications for social work ethics, practice and education are also discussed

    Self-driven lattice-model Monte Carlo simulations of alloy thermodynamic

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    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of lattice models are a widely used way to compute thermodynamic properties of substitutional alloys. A limitation to their more widespread use is the difficulty of driving a MC simulation in order to obtain the desired quantities. To address this problem, we have devised a variety of high-level algorithms that serve as an interface between the user and a traditional MC code. The user specifies the goals sought in a high-level form that our algorithms convert into elementary tasks to be performed by a standard MC code. For instance, our algorithms permit the determination of the free energy of an alloy phase over its entire region of stability within a specified accuracy, without requiring any user intervention during the calculations. Our algorithms also enable the direct determination of composition-temperature phase boundaries without requiring the calculation of the whole free energy surface of the alloy system
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