1,106 research outputs found

    Conductive microfluidic interconnects to enable scalable 3D manufacturing of wearable electronics

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    This paper investigates the geometry and surface finish of channels machined into polydimethylsiloxane using a continuous wave CO2 laser. In order to investigate the various mechanisms, that could affect the channel geometry, both the laser power and trace speed were varied in conjunction with the use of a fixed focal size to allow comparison between configurations. It was discovered that as the power level increases, repeatability decreases while dimensional variability of the channel along its length and multiple iterations increases. It was found that the power output of the laser has a greater effect on the dimensions of the channels than the total energy input into the material. Varying configurations were used when creating these channels resulting in a strong correlation between both power and speed with regard to depth. However, at higher energy levels this relationship appears to break down and the depth of the cut reduces when compared to similar laser configurations at a lower power level

    Healthcare Mistreatment, State-Level Policy Protections, and Healthcare Avoidance Among Gender Minority People

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    Introduction: This study examined whether past experiences of mistreatment in healthcare were associated with greater healthcare avoidance due to anticipated mistreatment among gender minority (GM) people. We evaluated whether state-level healthcare policy protections moderated this relationship. Methods: Data from the 2018 Annual Questionnaire of The PRIDE Study, a national longitudinal study on sexual and gender minority people‚Äôs health, were used in these analyses. Logistic regression modeling tested relationships between lifetime healthcare mistreatment due to gender identity or expression and past-year healthcare avoidance due to anticipated mistreatment among GM participants. Interactions between lifetime healthcare mistreatment and state-level healthcare policy protections and their relationship with past-year healthcare avoidance were tested. Results: Participants reporting any lifetime healthcare mistreatment had greater odds of past-year healthcare avoidance due to anticipated mistreatment among gender expansive people (n = 1290, OR = 4.71 [CI]: 3.57‚Äď6.20), transfeminine people (n = 263, OR = 10.32 [CI]: 4.72‚Äď22.59), and transmasculine people (n = 471, OR = 3.90 [CI]: 2.50‚Äď6.13). Presence of state-level healthcare policy protections did not moderate this relationship in any study groups. Conclusions: For GM people, reporting lifetime healthcare mistreatment was associated with healthcare avoidance due to anticipated mistreatment. State-level healthcare policy protections were not a moderating factor in this relationship. Efforts to evaluate the implementation and enforcement of state-level policies are needed. Continued efforts to understand instances of and to diminish healthcare mistreatment of GM people are recommended

    Incorporating New Technologies Into Toxicity Testing and Risk Assessment: Moving From 21st Century Vision to a Data-Driven Framework

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    Based on existing data and previous work, a series of studies is proposed as a basis toward a pragmatic early step in transforming toxicity testing. These studies were assembled into a data-driven framework that invokes successive tiers of testing with margin of exposure (MOE) as the primary metric. The first tier of the framework integrates data from high-throughput in vitro assays, in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) pharmacokinetic modeling, and exposure modeling. The in vitro assays are used to separate chemicals based on their relative selectivity in interacting with biological targets and identify the concentration at which these interactions occur. The IVIVE modeling converts in vitro concentrations into external dose for calculation of the point of departure (POD) and comparisons to human exposure estimates to yield a MOE. The second tier involves short-term in vivo studies, expanded pharmacokinetic evaluations, and refined human exposure estimates. The results from the second tier studies provide more accurate estimates of the POD and the MOE. The third tier contains the traditional animal studies currently used to assess chemical safety. In each tier, the POD for selective chemicals is based primarily on endpoints associated with a proposed mode of action, whereas the POD for nonselective chemicals is based on potential biological perturbation. Based on the MOE, a significant percentage of chemicals evaluated in the first 2 tiers could be eliminated from further testing. The framework provides a risk-based and animal-sparing approach to evaluate chemical safety, drawing broadly from previous experience but incorporating technological advances to increase efficiency

    Rapid transcriptome sequencing of an invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys

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    Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Insecta:Hemiptera;Pentatomidae), commonly known as the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), is an invasive pest of the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, causing economically important damage to a wide range of crops. Native to Asia, BMSB was first observed in Allentown, PA, USA, in 1996, and this pest is now well-established throughout the US mid-Atlantic region and beyond. In addition to the serious threat BMSB poses to agriculture, BMSB has become a nuisance to homeowners, invading home gardens and congregating in large numbers in human-made structures, including homes, to overwinter. Despite its significance as an agricultural pest with limited control options, only 100 bp of BMSB sequence data was available in public databases when this project began. Transcriptome sequencing was undertaken to provide a molecular resource to the research community to inform the development of pest control strategies and to provide molecular data for population genetics studies of BMSB. Using normalized, strand-specific libraries, we sequenced pools of all BMSB life stages on the Illumina HiSeq. Trinity was used to assemble 200,000 putative transcripts in >100,000 components. A novel bioinformatic method that analyzed the strand-specificity of the data reduced this to 53,071 putative transcripts from 18,573 components. By integrating multiple other data types, we narrowed this further to 13,211 representative transcripts. Bacterial endosymbiont genes were identified in this dataset, some of which have a copy number consistent with being lateral gene transfers between endosymbiont genomes and Hemiptera, including ankyrin-repeat related proteins, lysozyme, and mannanase. Such genes and endosymbionts may provide novel targets for BMSB-specific biocontrol. This study demonstrates the utility of strand-specific sequencing in generating shotgun transcriptomes and that rapid sequencing shotgun transcriptomes is possible without the need for extensive inbreeding to generate homozygous lines. Such sequencing can provide a rapid response to pest invasions similar to that already described for disease epidemiology.https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-73

    Diversifying Selection Underlies the Origin of Allozyme Polymorphism at the Phosphoglucose Isomerase Locus in Tigriopus californicus

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    The marine copepod Tigriopus californicus lives in intertidal rock pools along the Pacific coast, where it exhibits strong, temporally stable population genetic structure. Previous allozyme surveys have found high frequency private alleles among neighboring subpopulations, indicating that there is limited genetic exchange between populations. Here we evaluate the factors responsible for the diversification and maintenance of alleles at the phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) locus by evaluating patterns of nucleotide variation underlying previously identified allozyme polymorphism. Copepods were sampled from eleven sites throughout California and Baja California, revealing deep genetic structure among populations as well as genetic variability within populations. Evidence of recombination is limited to the sample from Pescadero and there is no support for linkage disequilibrium across the Pgi locus. Neutrality tests and codon-based models of substitution suggest the action of natural selection due to elevated non-synonymous substitutions at a small number of sites in Pgi. Two sites are identified as the charge-changing residues underlying allozyme polymorphisms in T. californicus. A reanalysis of allozyme variation at several focal populations, spanning a period of 26 years and over 200 generations, shows that Pgi alleles are maintained without notable frequency changes. Our data suggest that diversifying selection accounted for the origin of Pgi allozymes, while McDonald-Kreitman tests and the temporal stability of private allozyme alleles suggests that balancing selection may be involved in the maintenance of amino acid polymorphisms within populations

    Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND)‚ÄĒIron Review

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    This is the fifth in the series of reviews developed as part of the Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) program. The BOND Iron Expert Panel (I-EP) reviewed the extant knowledge regarding iron biology, public health implications, and the relative usefulness of currently available biomarkers of iron status from deficiency to overload. Approaches to assessing intake, including bioavailability, are also covered. The report also covers technical and laboratory considerations for the use of available biomarkers of iron status, and concludes with a description of research priorities along with a brief discussion of new biomarkers with potential for use across the spectrum of activities related to the study of iron in human health. The I-EP concluded that current iron biomarkers are reliable for accurately assessing many aspects of iron nutrition. However, a clear distinction is made between the relative strengths of biomarkers to assess hematological consequences of iron deficiency versus other putative functional outcomes, particularly the relationship between maternal and fetal iron status during pregnancy, birth outcomes, and infant cognitive, motor and emotional development. The I-EP also highlighted the importance of considering the confounding effects of inflammation and infection on the interpretation of iron biomarker results, as well as the impact of life stage. Finally, alternative approaches to the evaluation of the risk for nutritional iron overload at the population level are presented, because the currently designated upper limits for the biomarker generally employed (serum ferritin) may not differentiate between true iron overload and the effects of subclinical inflammation

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an