5 research outputs found

    How does cognitive load affect the appearance of involuntary musical imagery (INMI)? Inducing earworms in the lab

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    Involuntary musical imagery (INMI, or earworms) is a term referring to the ubiquitous experience of a repetitive musical snippet coming to the mind unbidden and persisting in an uncontrolled manner. Studies to date provide contradictory reports regarding the role of concurrent cognitive load in this phenomenon: some support that INMI appears more during low cognitive load while others suggest the opposite. In the present study this question was addressed by gradually increasing the cognitive load. One hundred and sixty people watched two film trailers with popular soundtracks (one lyrical and one instrumental) and completed a “film appraisal questionnaire”. Next they engaged in one of four 5-minute tasks representing gradually increasing cognitive load. Finally they completed a “mind activity questionnaire” specifically designed for implicit INMI sampling. After 24 hours the same questionnaire was completed again online. INMI induction rate at baseline was 65% and decreased as cognitive load increased. The lyrical music was experienced more as INMI and there was a recency effect for the last song presented. In the 24-hour follow up study, 20.4% of people reported INMI. This new implicit, single blind paradigm has shed light on the effects of increasing cognitive load on INMI appearance and has provided us with important methodological insights for future INMI studies.Keywords: involuntary musical imagery, earworms, cognitive loa

    The use of technology for arts-based activities in older adults living with mild cognitive impairment or dementia: a scoping review

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    For older adults living with mild cognitive impairment or dementia, creative arts-based activities can offer many benefits from enjoyment as leisure/recreation to an avenue to maintain cognitive, social and emotional wellbeing. With growing interest and recognition that technology could have potential to assist in delivering these activities in more accessible and personalised ways, a scoping review was undertaken to systematically examine the scientific literature for technology-assisted creative arts activities for older adults living with dementia. We searched PubMed, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Scopus and ACM Digital Library databases using keywords centering on population with dementia, an intervention using technology, and a context of creative arts, with no restrictions on the type of outcome measured. We retrieved 3739 records, with an additional 22 from hand-searching. 51 full-text articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings of the review indicate technologies principally being designed for music activities (listening, and music-making), as well as storytelling and visual arts. The majority of devices were custom-made, with studies mainly reporting on validating the success of the device/intervention. This suggests most work in the field is currently at prototyping stage, although a few devices are now commercially available. Recommendations for future research includes involvement of participants reporting on their previous experiences in the arts and how this influences co-design choices, and inclusion of different severities of dementia in the participant/co-design group. Furthering device development past prototyping stage as well as collaboration between teams would enable comparisons to be made across different types of devices used for the same activity, and comparisons across arts-based activities that could lead to cross-disciplinary outcomes for the design of creative arts-based assistive technologies

    Environmental and mental conditions predicting the experience of involuntary musical imagery: An experience sampling method study.

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    An experience sampling method (ESM) study on 40 volunteers was conducted to explore the environmental factors and psychological conditions related to involuntary musical imagery (INMI) in everyday life. Participants reported 6 times per day for one week on their INMI experiences, relevant contextual information and associated environmental conditions. The resulting data was modeled with Bayesian networks and led to insights into the interplay of factors related to INMI experiences. The activity that a person is engaged was found to play an important role in the experience of mind wandering, which in turn enables the experience of INMI. INMI occurrence is independent of the time of the day while the INMI trigger affects the subjective evaluation of the INMI experience. The results are compared to findings from earlier studies based on retrospective surveys and questionnaires and highlight the advantage of ESM techniques in research on spontaneous experiences like INMI

    The Involuntary Musical Imagery Scale (IMIS).

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    This report comprises 3 studies that delineate the development and validation of the Involuntary Musical Imagery Scale (IMIS) based on data from 2,646 individuals. This new self-report inventory measures individual differences in involuntary musical imagery (“INMI,” commonly referred to as “earworms”). The first study involved exploratory factor analysis, leading to the identification of a 4-factor scale structure. The 4 factors are conceived as “Negative Valence,” “Movement,” “Personal Reflections,” and “Help.” The second study confirmed this factor structure on an independent sample and derived indices of internal validity and test–retest reliability. The third study reports on IMIS correlates with existing measures of thinking style, imagery abilities, and music-related behaviors. Results showed that the IMIS measures a unique construct compared with existing self-report inventories. Furthermore, significant correlations were found with a combination of self-reported musical behaviors on the one hand and tendencies to engage in task-unrelated thoughts on the other. Overall, these findings provide evidence that IMIS constitutes a reliable scale that captures individual differences in INMI and that its first application reveals previously uncaptured associations between INMI and certain cognitive and behavioral trait
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