35,175 research outputs found

    Survival of the small firm and the entrepreneur under demand and efficiency uncertainty

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    The formation of disks in massive spiral galaxies

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    The flatness of the rotation curve inside spiral galaxies is interpreted as the imprint of a halo of invisible matter. Using the deepest observations of distant galaxies, we have investigated how large disks could have been formed. Observations include spatially resolved kinematics, detailed morphologies and photometry from UV to mid-IR. Six Giga-years ago, half of the present-day spirals had anomalous kinematics and morphologies that considerably affect the scatter of the Tully Fisher relation. All anomalous galaxies can be modelled through gas-rich, major mergers that lead to a rebuilt of a new disk. The spiral-rebuilding scenario is proposed as a new channel to form large disks in present-day spirals and it accounts for all the observed evolutions since the last 6 Giga-years. A large fraction of the star formation is linked to merging events during their whole durations.Comment: AIP Proceedings of a review given at the "Invisible Universe International Conference" held in Paris, June 2009. 16 pages, 9 Figure

    HD 80606: Searching the chemical signature of planet formation

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    (Abridged) Binary systems with similar components are ideal laboratories which allow several physical processes to be tested, such as the possible chemical pattern imprinted by the planet formation process. Aims. We explore the probable chemical signature of planet formation in the remarkable binary system HD 80606 - HD 80607. The star HD 80606 hosts a giant planet with 4 MJup detected by both transit and radial velocity techniques, being one of the most eccentric planets detected to date. We study condensation temperature Tc trends of volatile and refractory element abundances to determine whether there is a depletion of refractories that could be related to the terrestrial planet formation. Methods. We carried out a high-precision abundance determination in both components of the binary system, using a line-by-line strictly differential approach, using the Sun as a reference and then using HD 80606 as reference. We used an updated version of the program FUNDPAR, together with ATLAS9 model atmospheres and the MOOG code. Conclusions. From the study of Tc trends, we concluded that the stars HD 80606 and HD 80607 do not seem to be depleted in refractory elements, which is different for the case of the Sun. Then, the terrestrial planet formation would have been less efficient in the components of this binary system than in the Sun. The lack of a trend for refractory elements with Tc between both stars implies that the presence of a giant planet do not neccesarily imprint a chemical signature in their host stars, similar to the recent result of Liu et al. (2014). This is also in agreement with Melendez et al. (2009), who suggest that the presence of close-in giant planets might prevent the formation of terrestrial planets. Finally, we speculate about a possible planet around the star HD 80607.Comment: 19 pages, 9 figures, A&A accepte
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