576 research outputs found

    Vacuum Instability in Chern-Simons Gravity

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    We explore perturbations about a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background in Chern-Simons gravity. At large momenta one of the two circularly polarized tensor modes becomes ghostlike. We argue that nevertheless the theory does not exhibit classical runaway solutions, except possibly in the relativistic nonlinear regime. However, the ghost modes cause the vacuum state to be quantum mechanically unstable, with a decay rate that is naively infinite. The decay rate can be made finite only if one interprets the theory as an effective quantum field theory valid up to some momentum cutoff, which violates Lorentz invariance. By demanding that the energy density in photons created by vacuum decay over the lifetime of the Universe not violate observational bounds, we derive strong constraints on the two dimensional parameter space of the theory, consisting of the cutoff and the Chern-Simons mass.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figures; final published versio

    Gravitational Interactions in a General Multibrane Model

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    The gravitational interactions of the four-dimensional effective theory describing a general NN-brane model in five dimensions without radion stabilization are analyzed. Both uncompactified and orbifolded models are considered. The parameter space is constrained by requiring that there be no ghost modes in the theory, and that the Eddington parameterized post-Newtonian parameter γ\gamma be consistent with observations. We show that we must reside on the brane on which the warp factor is maximized. The resultant theory contains N1N-1 radion modes in a nonlinear sigma model, with the target space being a subset of hyperbolic space. Imposing observational constraints on the relative strengths of gravitational interactions of dark and visible matter shows that at least 99.8% of the dark matter must live on our brane in this model.Comment: 18 pages, 4 figures. Version 2 (submitted to PRD) adds analysis on orbifold

    Probing Compressed Top Squarks at the LHC at 14 TeV

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    A feasibility study is presented for the search of the lightest top squark in a compressed scenario, where its mass is approximately equal to the sum of the masses of the top quark and the lightest neutralino. The study is performed in the final state of two b-jets, one lepton, large missing energy, and two high-ETE_{\rm T} jets with large separation in pseudo-rapidity, in opposite hemispheres, and with large dijet mass. The LHC could discover compressed top squarks with mass up to approximately 340 GeV (390 GeV) with an integrated luminosity of 1000 ifb (3000 ifb).Comment: Version updated with major changes: (a) 3-body stop decay (to b+W+n1) analyzed for first time (b) systematics calculation and discussion significantly upgraded (c) new kinematic and mass reach plots for the 3-body decay scenario added (d) discussions clarified throughou

    Search for Supersymmetry Using Weak Boson Fusion Processes in Proton-Proton Collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

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    In 2012, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (LHC) collided protons at an unprecedented center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. With data corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb^(−1), the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) collaboration is studying various Standard Model processes as well as searching for Beyond the Standard Model processes through a plethora of distinct projects. This dissertation searches for Supersymmetry using weak boson fusion processes. These processes provide a unique opportunity to access the electroweak sector of super-symmetry. Though well motivated, this search finds no excess above the Standard Model. Exclusion limits are obtained in the context of electroweakino masses at the 95% confidence level

    Metric-affine f(R) theories of gravity

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    General Relativity assumes that spacetime is fully described by the metric alone. An alternative is the so called Palatini formalism where the metric and the connections are taken as independent quantities. The metric-affine theory of gravity has attracted considerable attention recently, since it was shown that within this framework some cosmological models, based on some generalized gravitational actions, can account for the current accelerated expansion of the universe. However we think that metric-affine gravity deserves much more attention than that related to cosmological applications and so we consider here metric-affine gravity theories in which the gravitational action is a general function of the scalar curvature while the matter action is allowed to depend also on the connection which is not {\em a priori} symmetric. This general treatment will allow us to address several open issues such as: the relation between metric-affine f(R)f(R) gravity and General Relativity (in vacuum as well as in the presence of matter), the implications of the dependence (or independence) of the matter action on the connections, the origin and role of torsion and the viability of the minimal-coupling principle.Comment: typos corrected, replaced to match published versio

    Modification to the Luminosity Distance Redshift Relation in Modified Gravity Theories

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    We derive an expression for the luminosity distance as a function of redshift for a flat Robertson-Walker spacetime perturbed by arbitrary scalar perturbations possibly produced by a modified gravity theory with two different scalar perturbation potentials. Measurements of the luminosity distance as function of redshift provide a constraint on a combination of the scalar potentials and so they can complement weak lensing and other measurements in trying to distinguish among the various alternative theories of gravity.Comment: 15 pages, we discuss in more detail how the luminosity distance expression can be used to differentiate among various theories of gravit

    Gravitational waves from inspiraling compact binaries: Second post-Newtonian waveforms as search templates II

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    We present further evidence that the second post-Newtonian (pN) approximation to the gravitational waves emitted by inspiraling compact binaries is sufficient for the detection of these systems. This is established by comparing the 2-pN wave forms to signals calculated from black hole perturbation theory. Results are presented for different detector noise curves. We also discuss the validity of this type of analysis.Comment: 5 pages, 3 Figures, RevTe

    The Cauchy problem of scalar-tensor theories of gravity

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    The 3+1 formulation of scalar-tensor theories of gravity (STT) is obtained in the physical (Jordan) frame departing from the 4+0 covariant field equations. Contrary to the common belief (folklore), the new system of ADM-like equations shows that the Cauchy problem of STT is well formulated (in the sense that the whole system of evolution equations is of first order in the time-derivative). This is the first step towards a full first order (in time and space) formulation from which a subsequent hyperbolicity analysis (a well-posedness determination) can be performed. Several gauge (lapse and shift) conditions are considered and implemented for STT. In particular, a generalization of the harmonic gauge for STT allows us to prove the well posedness of the STT using a second order analysis which is very similar to the one used in general relativity. Some spacetimes of astrophysical and cosmological interest are considered as specific applications. Several appendices complement the ideas of the main part of the paper.Comment: 29 pages Revtex; typos corrected; references added and updated; a shorter version of this paper was published in Classical and Quantum Gravit

    Measuring gravitational waves from binary black hole coalescences: II. the waves' information and its extraction, with and without templates

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    We discuss the extraction of information from detected binary black hole (BBH) coalescence gravitational waves, focusing on the merger phase that occurs after the gradual inspiral and before the ringdown. Our results are: (1) If numerical relativity simulations have not produced template merger waveforms before BBH detections by LIGO/VIRGO, one can band-pass filter the merger waves. For BBHs smaller than about 40 solar masses detected via their inspiral waves, the band pass filtering signal to noise ratio indicates that the merger waves should typically be just barely visible in the noise for initial and advanced LIGO interferometers. (2) We derive an optimized (maximum likelihood) method for extracting a best-fit merger waveform from the noisy detector output; one "perpendicularly projects" this output onto a function space (specified using wavelets) that incorporates our prior knowledge of the waveforms. An extension of the method allows one to extract the BBH's two independent waveforms from outputs of several interferometers. (3) If numerical relativists produce codes for generating merger templates but running the codes is too expensive to allow an extensive survey of the merger parameter space, then a coarse survey of this parameter space, to determine the ranges of the several key parameters and to explore several qualitative issues which we describe, would be useful for data analysis purposes. (4) A complete set of templates could be used to test the nonlinear dynamics of general relativity and to measure some of the binary parameters. We estimate the number of bits of information obtainable from the merger waves (about 10 to 60 for LIGO/VIRGO, up to 200 for LISA), estimate the information loss due to template numerical errors or sparseness in the template grid, and infer approximate requirements on template accuracy and spacing.Comment: 33 pages, Rextex 3.1 macros, no figures, submitted to Phys Rev
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