170 research outputs found

    Intravenous Versus Oral Iron for the Treatment of Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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    Anemia is the most prevalent extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to evaluate the comparative efficacy and harm of intravenous (IV) versus oral iron supplementation for correcting anemia in adult IBD patients. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to integrate evidence from randomized controlled trials having enrolled adults with IBD, and comparing IV versus oral iron (head-to-head) for correcting iron-deficiency anemia. Medline, Embase, Scopus, and the Web of Science database were searched through July 2015. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the ClinicalTrials.gov, and international conference proceedings were also investigated. Two reviewers independently abstracted study data and outcomes, and rated each trial's risk-of-bias. Pooled odds ratio (OR) estimates with their 95% CIs were calculated using fixed- and random-effects models. Five eligible studies, including 694 IBD patients, were identified. In meta-analysis, IV iron demonstrated a higher efficacy in achieving a hemoglobin rise of ‚Č•2.0 g/dL as compared to oral iron (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.18). Treatment discontinuation rates, due to adverse events or intolerance, were lower in the IV iron groups (OR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.59). Similarly, the occurrence of gastrointestinal adverse events was consistently lower in the IV iron groups. On the contrary, serious adverse events (SAEs) were more frequently reported among patients receiving IV iron preparations (OR: 4.57, 95% CI: 1.11, 18.8); however, the majority of the reported SAEs were judged as unrelated or unlikely to be related to the study medication. We found no evidence of publication bias, or between-study heterogeneity, across all analyses. Risk of bias was high across primary studies, because patients and personnel were not blinded to the intervention. IV iron appears to be more effective and better tolerated than oral iron for the treatment of IBD-associated anemia

    Calcium supplementation for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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    AIM: To determine the efficacy of calcium supplementation in reducing the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and the ClinicalTrials.gov website, through December 2015. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials assessing supplemental calcium intake for the prevention of recurrence of adenomas were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently selected studies based on predefined criteria, extracted data and outcomes (recurrence of colorectal adenomas, and advanced or ‚Äúhigh-risk‚ÄĚ adenomas), and rated each trial‚Äôs risk-of-bias. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed, and pooled risk ratio (RR) estimates with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using fixed- and random-effects models. To express the treatment effect in clinical terms, we calculated the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one adenoma recurrence. We also assessed the quality of evidence using GRADE. RESULTS: Four randomized, placebo-controlled trials met the eligibility criteria and were included. Daily doses of elemental calcium ranged from 1200 to 2000 mg, while the duration of treatment and follow-up of participants ranged from 36 to 60 mo. Synthesis of intention-to-treat data, for participants who had undergone follow-up colonoscopies, indicated a modest protective effect of calcium in prevention of adenomas (fixed-effects, RR = 0.89, 95%CI: 0.82-0.96; random-effects, RR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.77-0.98; high quality of evidence). The NNT was 20 (95%CI: 12-61) to prevent one colorectal adenoma recurrence within a period of 3 to 5 years. On the other hand, the association between calcium treatment and advanced adenomas did not reach statistical significance (fixed-effects, RR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.75-1.13; random-effects, RR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.71-1.18; moderate quality of evidence). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a modest chemopreventive effect of calcium supplements against recurrent colorectal adenomas over a period of 36 to 60 mo. Further research is warranted

    Research gaps in diet and nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease. A topical review by D-ECCO Working Group (Dietitians of ECCO)

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    Although the current doctrine of IBD pathogenesis proposes an interaction between environmental factors with gut microbiota in genetically-susceptible individuals, dietary exposures have attracted recent interest and are, at least in part, likely to explain the rapid rise in disease incidence and prevalence. The D-ECCO working group along with other ECCO experts with expertise in nutrition, microbiology, physiology and medicine reviewed the evidence investigating the role of diet and nutritional therapy in the onset, perpetuation and management of IBD. A narrative topical review is presented where evidence pertinent to the topic is summarized collectively under three main thematic domains: i) the role of diet as an environmental factor in IBD aetiology; ii) the role of diet as induction and maintenance therapy in IBD; and iii) assessment of nutritional status and supportive nutritional therapy in IBD. A summary of research gaps for each of these thematic domains is proposed which is anticipated to be agenda setting for future research in the area of diet and nutrition in IBD

    Use of biologics for the management of Crohn's disease: IG-IBD clinical guidelines based on the GRADE methodology

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    A cure for Crohn's disease (CD), a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology, is not available, so patients require lifelong management to keep inflammation under control. The therapeutic armamentarium has expanded with approval of several biological drugs, including in-fliximab, adalimumab, vedolizumab and ustekinumab - monoclonal antibodies that target different in-flammatory pathways - and darvadstrocel, a suspension of expanded human allogeneic, adipose-derived, mesenchymal stromal cells for the treatment of refractory complex perianal fistula. Notwithstanding ex-isting practice guidelines on medical therapy for CD, the Italian Group for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease felt the need to issue new guidelines focused on the use of biologics for managing the intestinal manifestations of CD and based on the GRADE methodology. This document presents recom-mendations regarding six clinical settings, from the induction to the maintenance of clinical remission, and from optimization and de-escalation of treatments to dealing with perianal CD and post-operative recurrence. The 19 evidence-based statements are supported by information on the quality of the evi-dence, agreement rate among panel members, and panel comments mainly based on evidence from real world studies

    Rho-A prenylation and signaling link epithelial homeostasis to intestinal inflammation

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    Although defects in intestinal barrier function are discussed as a key pathogenic factor in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), the molecular pathways driving disease-specific alterations of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are largely unknown. Here, we performed a novel approach to characterize the transcriptome of IECs from IBD patients using a genome wide approach. We observed disease-specific alterations in IECs with markedly impaired Rho-A signaling in active IBD patients. Localization of epithelial Rho-A was shifted to the cytosol in IBD where Rho-A activation was suppressed due to reduced expression of the Rho-A prenylation enzyme GGTase-I. The functional relevance of this pathway was highlighted by studies in mice with conditional gene targeting in which deletion of RhoA or GGTase-I in IECs caused spontaneous chronic intestinal inflammation with accumulation of granulocytes and CD4+ T cells. This phenotype was associated with cytoskeleton rearrangement and aberrant cell shedding ultimately leading to loss of epithelial integrity and subsequent inflammation. These findings uncover deficient prenylation of Rho-A as a key player in the pathogenesis of IBD. As therapeutic triggering of Rho-A signaling suppressed intestinal inflammation in mice with GGTase-I deficient IECs, our findings open new avenues for treatment of epithelial injury and mucosal inflammation in IBD patients

    Carcinomas in inflammatory bowel disease: a narrative review on diagnostic imaging techniques

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    We aimed, therefore, to review the current evidence on imaging modalities and carcinomas overlapping IBD.Patients affected by inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are at increased risk for developing both gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal cancers. The subtype of IBD, namely Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, the location, the activity, the extent, and the duration of the disease determine this risk. Standardized surveillance programs based on imaging techniques exist only for colorectal cancer, where colonoscopy is the milestone of early detection. Clarification is needed on whether different imaging modalities might be adopted in the algorithms for screening and diagnosis of cancers in IBD patients.PubMed was searched up to July 2021 to identify relevant studies investigating the accuracy of imaging techniques in identifying carcinomas in IBD patients. The following text words and corresponding Medical Subject Heading/Entree terms were used: "imaging", "computed tomography", "magnetic resonance imaging", "inflammatory bowel disease", "adenocarcinoma" and "cancer".Currently dye-chromoendoscopy (DCE) is established as the gold standard diagnostic modality for the detection of dysplasia in IBD, with a demonstrated superiority compared to white-light endoscopy. Two main radiological patterns have been described at cross-sectional imaging for both colorectal cancer and small bowel adenocarcinoma. The first subtype is characterized by a tissue mass, while the second subtype recognizes a circumferential thickening with or without the stricturing of the lumen. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of cross-sectional imaging techniques for the detection of carcinomas in the context of IBD are largely unknown and scarcely investigated. The definition of surveillance programs based on different imaging methods is warranted

    Development of Red Flags Index for Early Referral of Adults with Symptoms and Signs Suggestive of Crohn's Disease: An IOIBD Initiative

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    International audience; BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Diagnostic delay is frequent in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). We developed a tool to predict early diagnosis.METHODS:A systematic literature review and 12 CD specialists identified 'Red Flags', i.e. symptoms or signs suggestive of CD. A 21-item questionnaire was administered to 36 healthy subjects, 80 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (non-CD group) and 85 patients with recently diagnosed (<18 months) CD. Patients with CD were asked to recall symptoms and signs they experienced during the 12 months before diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression analyses selected and weighted independent items to construct the Red Flags index. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the threshold that discriminated CD from non-CD. Association with the Red Flags index relative to this threshold was expressed as the odds ratios (OR).RESULTS:Two hundred and one subjects, CD and non-CD, answered the questionnaire. The multivariate analysis identified eight items independently associated with a diagnosis of CD. A minimum Red Flags index value of 8 was highly predictive of CD diagnosis with sensitivity and specificity bootstrap estimates of 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.88-0.99) and 0.94 (0.90-0.97), respectively. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were 15.1 (9.3-33.6) and 0.066 (0.013-0.125), respectively. The association between CD diagnosis and a Red Flags index value of ‚Č•8 corresponds to an OR of 290 (p < 0.0001).CONCLUSIONS:The Red Flags index using early symptoms and signs has high predictive value for the diagnosis of CD. These results need prospective validation prior to introduction into clinical practice
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