1,232 research outputs found

    Machine Learning Techniques in Prostate Cancer Diagnosis According to Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels and Prostate Cancer Gene 3 Score

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    Purpose: To explore the role of artificial intelligence and machine learning (ML) techniques in oncological urology. In recent years, our group investigated the prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and free-PSA predictive role for prostate cancer (PCa), using the classical binary logistic regression (LR) modeling. In this research, we approached the same clinical problem by several different ML algorithms, to evaluate their performances and feasibility in a real-world evidence PCa detection trial.Materials and Methods: The occurrence of a positive biopsy has been studied in a large cohort of 1,246 Italian men undergoing first or repeat biopsy. Seven supervised ML algorithms were selected to build biomarkers-based predictive models: generalized linear model, gradient boosting machine, eXtreme gradient boosting machine (XGBoost), distributed random forest/ extremely randomized forest, multilayer artificial Deep Neural Network, naĂŻve Bayes classifier, and an automatic ML ensemble function.Results: All the ML models showed better performances in terms of area under curve (AUC) and accuracy, when compared to LR model. Among them, an XGBoost model tuned by the autoML function reached the best metrics (AUC, 0.830), well overtaking LR results (AUC, 0.738). In the variable importance ranking coming from this XGBoost model (accuracy, 0.824), the PCA3 score importance was 3-fold and 4-fold larger, when compared to that of free-PSA and PSA, respectively.Conclusions: The ML approach proved to be feasible and able to achieve good predictive performances with reproducible results: it may thus be recommended, when applied to PCa prediction based on biomarkers fluctuations

    Laparoscopic Nephron-Sparing Calycectomy for Treating Fraley's Syndrome

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    Background/Aims/Objectives: Various nephron-sparing approaches were described as part of surgical management for Fraley's syndrome, a rare anatomic variant of the renal vascular anatomy that compresses the upper pole infundibulum resulting in an upper calyceal obstruction and dilatation, with symptoms of flank pain and hematuria. To date, descriptions of minimally invasive correction techniques are anecdotal. METHODS: A retroperitoneal pure laparoscopic approach using the nephron-sparing technique was chosen in the presented case. RESULTS: In this report, we demonstrated that if laparoscopic calycectomy is performed without clamping of renal branches, parenchymal ischemia can be completely avoided. Additionally, the preservation of renal tissue surrounding the calyx enables the preservation of the intrasinusal segmental arteries flow, thereby avoiding their accidental closure by hemostatic sutures. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, Laparoscopic Nephron-Sparing Calycectomy is a safe and effective surgical procedure for the treatment of Fraley's syndrome. Consistent laparoscopic experience is required before embarking on this kind of surgery

    Safe introduction of laparoscopic and retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy in clinical practice: impact of a modular training program

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    Purpose: To describe and validate a novel modular training scheme (MTS) for trans-peritoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN) and retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy (RN). Methods: Four consultant urologists attended a Masterclass in âAdvanced Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery,â certified by the University of Turin (IT). The Masterclass was based on a supervised MTS, which involved progressive, proficiency-based training through nine and seven steps for LN and RN, respectively. After becoming proficient in all the steps, each trainee performed a minimum of five procedures as first operator under direct observation of the mentor in the training centre. Then, each trainee independently performed 10 LN and 10 RN at his home institution. The surgical outcomes were compared with those from a contemporary series of procedures performed by the mentor. Results: All trainees successfully completed the 12-week MTS program. Median number of training cases to become competent in trans-peritoneal LN and RN was 13.0 (IQR 11.5â20.5) and 23.5 (IQR 19.5â32.0), respectively. A significantly higher rate of conversion to open surgery was observed for RNs independently performed by the trainees in their hospital compared to the mentor (p = 0.033). Failure to progress due to difficult anatomical orientation and abdominal wall bleeding during dissection of retroperitoneal space were the most frequent reasons of conversion. Conclusions: A 12-week intensive modular program allows to achieve proficiency in performing independently LN and a RN after a median of 13 and 23.5 cases, respectively. Therefore, these procedures can be safely introduced and implemented in clinical practice within a relatively short time

    Total Anatomical Reconstruction during Robot-assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Implications on Early Recovery of Urinary Continence

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    Background: The introduction of robotics revolutionized prostate cancer surgery because the magnified three-dimensional vision system and wristed instruments allow microsurgery to be performed. The advantages of robotic surgery could lead to improved continence outcomes in terms of early recovery compared with the traditional surgical methods. Objective: To describe the total anatomical reconstruction (TAR) technique during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Primary endpoint: evaluation of the continence rate at different time points. Secondary endpoint: evaluation of urine leakage and anastomosis stenosis rates related to the technique. Design, setting, and participants: June, 2013 to November, 2014; prospective consecutive series of patients with localized prostate cancer (cT1-3, cN0, cM0). Surgical procedure: RARP with TAR was performed in all cases. Lymph node dissection was performed if the risk of lymph nodal metastasis was over 5%, according to the Briganti updated nomogram. Measurements: Preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative, and pathological variables were analyzed. Enrolled patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups according to a time criterion. The relationships between the learning curve and the trend of the above-mentioned variables were analyzed using LOESS analysis. Continence was rigorously analyzed preoperatively and at 24h, 1 wk, 4 wk, 12 wk, and 24 wk after catheter removal. Results and limitations: In total, 252 patients were analyzed. The continence rates immediately after catheter removal and at 1 wk, 4 wk, 12 wk, and 24 wk after RARP were 71.8%, 77.8%, 89.3%, 94.4%, and 98.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the nerve sparing technique, D'Amico risk groups, lymph node dissection, and prostate volume were involved in the early recovery of urinary continence. One ileal perforation requiring reoperation was recorded. The transfusion rate was 0.8%. Thirty-one (12.3%) postoperative complications were recorded up to 6 mo after surgery. Among these, eight acute urinary retentions (3.2%) and three urine leakages (1.2%) were recorded. There was a lack of randomization and comparison with other techniques. Both anatomical dissection of the prostatic apex and TAR were used. The results may not be generalized to low-volume centers. Conclusions: The TAR technique showed promising results in the early recovery of urinary continence, as well as watertight anastomosis and a low rate of urine leakage. The oncologic results were not affected. Comparative studies are needed to support the quality of reported results
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