1,406 research outputs found

    Europe and its Jews: a Cosmopolitan Journey with Jürgen Habermas

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    After the Holocaust European antisemitism did not simply vanish into thin air and critical theorists drew attention to the new or secondary forms of antisemitism that arose in the postwar period. Among them Jürgen Habermas, a leading figure in the younger generation of critical theorists, is remarkable for confronting the legacy of European antisemitism in his his vision of a new Europe. His approach to the postnational constellation emphasised the importance of ongoing engagement with the history of European antisemitism and of reconstructing political community in ways that should make antisemitism less feasible in the future. While this paper endorses much of Habermas’ analysis, it is critical of cracks in the edifice of his reconstruction which allow back in a certain form of European chauvinism and which make it possible to reach the premature judgement that the problem of antisemitism has been solved in Europe. The last part of the paper addresses the actual ways in which the cracks in the postnational edifice have provided footholds for the unwelcome return of the ‘Jewish question’ to Europe and have made it difficult for critical theory to understand new forms of antisemitism emerging on the European landscape. The signs of an inversion of the cosmopolitan project - from critical engagement with the legacy of European antisemitism to an idealized image of European success in overcoming antisemitism - points to a misappropriation of cosmopolitanism that needs to be challenged

    Reinventing Central Office

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    This report presents a provocative description of a school system where resources, authority, and accountability reside primarily at the school level

    Civil Procedure—Specific Exceptions to Charge Needed to Raise Points on Appeal

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    Lobalzo v. Varoli, 422 Pa. 5, 220 A.2d 634 (1966)

    The use of anatomically based models for the analysis of imaged tracer experiments in humans

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    A thesis submitted to the faculty of Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg , in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Johannesburg, November 1994Organ function is often characterised using imaging techniques. In particular a tracer is often used which does not react with tissue, is low in concentration, follows body fluid flows and is distinguishable from the observed system and thus measurable. These requirements ensure linear characteristics of the tracer. In this thesis, these linear characteristics are used to develop a generalised mathematical theory to determine organ function from imaged tracer experiments. The theory is based on anatomical and physiological information for single and multiple input organs. [Abbreviated Abstract. Open document to view full version]MT201

    Labour and politics in South Africa, 1939-1964

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    The core of my dissertation is devoted to a re-interpretation of the history of the liberation movement in South Africa in two critical periods of its development. The first I call in short 'the 1940s' but shall be referring more specifically to the years between 1939 and the rise of apartheid in 1948; the second I call 'the 1950s' but shall refer to the years between the emergence of apartheid and the defeat of the liberation movement in 1964. Both the 1940s and the 1950s were marked by fierce class struggles which brought with them hopes of a new democratic order in South Africa; both closed on the sombre note of defeat for democracy and triumph for the forces of reaction and racism. Motivated by a dissatisfaction with prevailing interpretations, I shall explore what went wrong in these years in order to deepen our understanding of the political culture and social base of the liberation movement. I have focussed on these two historical periods because I see the basic parameters of the contemporary liberation movement as set by the class struggles which occurred within them. My central hypothesis is that, although class relations do not on the whole manifest themselves directly on the surface of the liberation movement, they have nonetheless been the crucial determinants of its pattern of evolution. My introductory chapter will be devoted to a theoretical discussion of the relation between nationalism and socialism in the South Africa liberation movement. It was written after the historical research and its ideas reflect a considerable change of mind which resulted from the research; the ideas expressed within it provide a necessary foundation for understanding what I wish to say through the substantive history. My final section will be an attempt to outline the major lessons which I draw from the history of these class struggles; it focusses on what I see as the unresolved conflict between the two traditions of 'radical liberalism' and 'insurrectionism' which run through the history of the liberation struggle and on defining what I see as the 'absent centre' of this history: social democracy or more accurately the social democratic movement of the working class

    Acoustic competition in the gulf toadfish Opsanus beta: Acoustic tagging

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    Nesting male gulf toadfish Opsanus beta produce a boatwhistle advertisement call used in male–male competition and to attract females and an agonistic grunt call. The grunt is a short-duration pulsatile call, and the boatwhistle is a complex call typically consisting of zero to three introductory grunts, a long tonal boop note, and zero to three shorter boops. The beginning of the boop note is also gruntlike. Anomalous boatwhistles contain a short-duration grunt embedded in the tonal portion of the boop or between an introductory grunt and the boop. Embedded grunts have sound-pressure levels and frequency spectra that correspond with those of recognized neighbors, suggesting that one fish is grunting during another’s call, a phenomenon here termed acoustic tagging. Snaps of nearby pistol shrimp may also be tagged, and chains of tags involving more than two fish occur. The stimulus to tag is a relatively intense sound with a rapid rise time, and tags are generally produced within 100 ms of a trigger stimulus. Time between the trigger and the tag decreases with increased trigger amplitude. Tagging is distinct from increased calling in response to natural calls or stimulatory playbacks since calls rarely overlap other calls or playbacks. Tagging is not generally reciprocal between fish, suggesting parallels to dominance displays

    An investigation into the management of the deep carious lesion by general dental practitioners in the UK

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    Objectives: As techniques and dental materials have evolved, the management of deep carious lesions has also changed. This study investigated how UK-based general dental practitioners (GDPs) managed deep carious lesions in permanent, vital teeth and factors that influence their choices. / Methods: This mixed-method study employed an online questionnaire as its primary source of quantitative data collection. The questionnaire enquired about GDPs': a) demographics; b) working environment; and c) whether they had postgraduate training that covered caries management/minimally invasive dentistry (MID). Respondents were presented with a clinical case to elicit qualitative data. Relevant questions were asked in order to examine current practice and explore treatment among the respondents. / Results: In total, 239 responses were received. Overall, 168 (70% [95% CI 64%, 76%]) of the respondents chose a partial caries removal technique, 155 (69.3% [95% CI 60%, 72%]) used an adhesive restorative material and 205 (85.8% [95% CI 81%, 89%]) advised fluoride adjuncts. However, rubber dam (75; 31.4% [95% CI 26%, 38%]) and saliva testing (17; 7.1% [95% CI 4%, 11%]) were not routinely used. A significant relationship between those who had postgraduate training and those who chose partial caries removal as their treatment choice (χ2 = 6.27; p = 0.01) was noted. Respondents working in an NHS-based practice were significantly (χ2 = 34.98; p <0.001) more likely to restore teeth with amalgam. / Conclusions: There is an inconsistent management protocol when presented with a deep carious lesion, but partial caries removal is more widely adopted than previously reported. Rubber dam isolation was not routinely used when choosing to restore a deep carious lesion. Those who have had postgraduate training felt more confident in offering MID, so there is a clear need for further education to ensure its engagement

    Higher Education and Reentry: The Gifts They Bring

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    This study explores the lived experiences of people with criminal justice histories as they attend and contemplate enrolling in college. The report highlights the journeys of these students and considers a number of important questions: What does it take for people with criminal justice histories to successfully transform the trajectory of their lives? What are the obstacles they face? What affirmative steps can we take to make our public and private colleges and universities more welcoming to this growing population of students
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