1,212 research outputs found

    The Heresy of the Free Spirit in the Later Middle Ages After a Half Century.

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    A well-worn copy of Robert E. Lerner’s The Heresy of the Free Spirit in the Later Middle Ages has held an central place on my bookshelf for more than half my life. Upon being accepted into the doctoral program at Northwestern University to study medieval history with Robert Lerner in 1996, I rushed to buy and read his best-known work, already a classic even then. I was twenty-six years old, The Heresy of the Free Spirit, published in 1972, was twenty-four. My immediate impression was that the..

    Nuclear modification of ΄\Upsilon states in pPb collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02 TeV

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    Production cross sections of ΄\Upsilon(1S), ΄\Upsilon(2S), and ΄\Upsilon(3S) states decaying into \muplusmuminus in proton-lead (pPb) collisions are reported using data collected by the CMS experiment atsNN\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02 TeV. A comparison is made with corresponding cross sections obtained with pp data measured at the same collision energy and scaled by the Pb nucleus mass number. The nuclear modification factor for ΄\Upsilon(1S) is found to be RpPb(΄(1S))R_\mathrm{pPb}(\Upsilon(1S)) = 0.806 ±\pm 0.024 (stat) ±\pm 0.059 (syst). Similar results for the excited states indicate a sequential suppression pattern, such that RpPb(΄(1S))>RpPb(΄(2S))>RpPb(΄(3S))R_\mathrm{pPb}(\Upsilon(1S)) \gt R_\mathrm{pPb}(\Upsilon(2S)) \gt R_\mathrm{pPb}(\Upsilon(3S)). The suppression is much less pronounced in pPb than in PbPb collisions, and independent of transverse momentum pT΄p_\mathrm{T}^\Upsilon and center-of-mass rapidity yCM΄y_\mathrm{CM}^\Upsilon of the individual ΄\Upsilon state in the studied range pT΄<p_\mathrm{T}^\Upsilon \lt 30 GeV/c/c and ∣yCM΄∣<\vert y_\mathrm{CM}^\Upsilon\vert \lt 1.93. Models that incorporate sequential suppression of bottomonia in pPb collisions are in better agreement with the data than those which only assume initial-state modifications

    Nuclear modification of ΄\Upsilon states in pPb collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02 TeV