77 research outputs found

    Characterization and phylogenetic epitope mapping of CD38 ADPR cyclase in the cynomolgus macaque

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    BACKGROUND: The CD38 transmembrane glycoprotein is an ADP-ribosyl cyclase that moonlights as a receptor in cells of the immune system. Both functions are independently implicated in numerous areas related to human health. This study originated from an inherent interest in studying CD38 in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), a species closely related to humans that also represents a cogent animal model for the biomedical analysis of CD38. RESULTS: A cDNA was isolated from cynomolgus macaque peripheral blood leukocytes and is predicted to encode a type II membrane protein of 301 amino acids with 92% identity to human CD38. Both RT-PCR-mediated cDNA cloning and genomic DNA PCR surveying were possible with heterologous human CD38 primers, demonstrating the striking conservation of CD38 in these primates. Transfection of the cDNA coincided with: (i) surface expression of cynomolgus macaque CD38 by immunofluorescence; (ii) detection of ~42 and 84 kDa proteins by Western blot and (iii) the appearance of ecto-enzymatic activity. Monoclonal antibodies were raised against the cynomolgus CD38 ectodomain and were either species-specific or cross-reactive with human CD38, in which case they were directed against a common disulfide-requiring conformational epitope that was mapped to the C-terminal disulfide loop. CONCLUSION: This multi-faceted characterization of CD38 from cynomolgus macaque demonstrates its high genetic and biochemical similarities with human CD38 while the immunological comparison adds new insights into the dominant epitopes of the primate CD38 ectodomain. These results open new prospects for the biomedical and pharmacological investigations of this receptor-enzyme

    CD157 enhances malignant pleural mesothelioma aggressiveness and predicts poor clinical outcome.

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    Malignant mesothelioma is a deadly tumor whose diagnosis and treatment remain very challenging. There is an urgent need to advance our understanding of mesothelioma biology and to identify new molecular markers for improving management of patients. CD157 is a membrane glycoprotein linked to ovarian cancer progression and mesenchymal differentiation. The common embryonic origin of ovarian epithelial cells and mesothelial cells and the evident similarities between ovarian and mesothelial cancer prompted us to investigate the biological role and clinical significance of CD157 in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). CD157 mRNA and protein were detected in four of nine MPM cell lines of diverse histotype and in 85.2% of MPM surgical tissue samples (32/37 epithelioid; 37/44 biphasic). CD157 expression correlated with clinical aggressiveness in biphasic MPM. Indeed, high CD157 was a negative prognostic factor and an independent predictor of poor survival for patients with biphasic MPM by multivariate survival analysis (HR = 2.433, 95% CI 1.120-5.284; p = 0.025). In mesothelioma cell lines, CD157 gain (in CD157-negative cells) or knockdown (in CD157-positive cells) affected cell growth, migration, invasion and tumorigenicity, most notably in biphasic MPM cell lines. In these cells, CD157 expression was associated with increased activation of the mTOR signaling pathway, resulting in decreased platinum sensitivity. Moreover, a trend towards reduced survival was observed in patients with biphasic MPM receiving postoperative platinum-based chemotherapy. These findings indicate that CD157 is implicated in multiple aspects of MPM progression and suggest that CD157 expression could be used to stratify patients into different prognostic groups or to select patients that might benefit from particular chemotherapeutic approach

    A large genomic deletion leads to enhancer adoption by the lamin B1 gene: a second path to autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD)

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    Chromosomal rearrangements with duplication of the lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene underlie autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD), a rare neurological disorder in which overexpression of LMNB1 causes progressive central nervous system demyelination. However, we previously reported an ADLD family (ADLD-1-TO) without evidence of duplication or other mutation in LMNB1 despite linkage to the LMNB1 locus and lamin B1 overexpression. By custom array-CGH, we further investigated this family and report here that patients carry a large (‚ąľ660 kb) heterozygous deletion that begins 66 kb upstream of the LMNB1 promoter. Lamin B1 overexpression was confirmed in further ADLD-1-TO tissues and in a postmortem brain sample, where lamin B1 was increased in the frontal lobe. Through parallel studies, we investigated both loss of genetic material and chromosomal rearrangement as possible causes of LMNB1 overexpression, and found that ADLD-1-TO plausibly results from an enhancer adoption mechanism. The deletion eliminates a genome topological domain boundary, allowing normally forbidden interactions between at least three forebrain-directed enhancers and the LMNB1 promoter, in line with the observed mainly cerebral localization of lamin B1 overexpression and myelin degeneration. This second route to LMNB1 overexpression and ADLD is a new example of the relevance of regulatory landscape modifications in determining Mendelian phenotype
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